Vitamin bioavailability, diet and prandial status: good tips for great results
Keywords:Vitamins Bioavailability Diet Meal Supplements
AbstractVitamins are key to human health. Although vitamins are involved in several metabolic pathways, humans cannot biosynthesize them except for vitamin D and vitamin B3, so adequate intake in the diet is crucial. Vitamins are classified as fat-soluble or water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K, while water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B and C. Avitaminosis due to imbalanced nutrition, disease or genetic impairment leads to disease, but consumption of vitamin supplements or fortified foods can counteract vitamin deficiency. However, their absorption depends on the type of meal and food matrix composition. Vitamins A, D and E are mainly influenced by lipid content which promotes intestinal uptake. Surprisingly, the fat-soluble vitamin K seems to be unaffected by type of diet, although it has better bioavailability as a food supplement. Water-soluble vitamin absorption is not significantly affected by prandial status or dietary composition. No data are reported for vitamin C, while the vitamin B group needs evaluation by coenzyme.