Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ): the next essential nutrient and supplement superstar
Keywords:Pyrroloquinoline quinone Mitochondrial function Mitochondrial biogenesis Oxidoreductases Cognitive function enhancement Activation of AMP-kinase
AbstractPyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a novel vitamin-like compound that acts as an essential active factor in the functioning of mitochondria. However, as higher organisms do not seem to biosynthesize PQQ, the major source in humans is the diet. In addition to its role in mitochondria, PQQ stimulates growth and serves as a cofactor for a special class of enzymes involved in cellular functions including cellular growth, development, differentiation and survival. It also has possible pharmacological effects via activation of AMP-kinase (AMPk). Given the nutritional importance and numerous physiological effects of PQQ, there are many possible clinical applications. The most obvious are those chronic degenerative conditions that revolve around low mitochondrial function and aging, including degenerative neurological disease (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease), chronic inflammation, metabolic syndrome and obesity. It also holds promise as a clinical aid for simply improving energy levels and cognition. This review will highlight the pharmacology, clinical applications and dosage recommendations for this promising natural product.