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24 Giugno 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0010

Comprehensive review of the impact of modification on the properties of jackfruit seed starch and its applications

Kushwaha R, Singh V, Kaur D.
Jackfruit belongs to the family Moraceae and is used as a novel source of starch. In the native stage, starch granules are generally insoluble at room temperature, extremely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and display an inability to endure processing conditions related to pH, temperature, shear rate and freeze–thawing. Modification can be carried out using chemical, physical or enzymatic methods, or a combination of these. To solve this problem, modification of starches is usually conducted to alter pasting, gelatinization and retrogradation behavior. Modified starches have been recognized as a multifunctional excipient in various industries. This review covers a wide array of topics relating to starch, including: methods of modification; the impact of modification on morphology, crystallinity, viscosity and functionality; and the application of modified starch.
21 Giugno 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0009

Efficacy of an oral supplement containing hyaluronic acid, collagen, glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, alpha-lipoic acid, methylsulfonylmethane and vitamins on vaginal dryness in young women

Angelucci M, Frascani F, Garo ML.
This study evaluated the oral administration of a new supplement containing a combination of bioactive agents (hyaluronic acid, glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, alpha-lipoic acid, methylsulfonylmethane and vitamins A, C and E). The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the oral administration of this product combats vulvovaginal atrophy in young women. This observational study recruited 32 women of fertile age with vaginal dryness, post-coital cystitis and/or dyspareunia (painful intercourse). Patients were evaluated using the VHI scale and the FSFI at baseline and at each follow-up. All patients took one tablet of the supplement twice daily (morning and evening) for two months. After two months, 28 patients (87%) showed an improvement in symptoms and reported complete remission. At the first follow-up at three months, that is, one month after stopping treatment, no substantial changes were reported. At the second follow-up at four months, that is, two months after stopping treatment, vaginal dryness had recurred, and patients were asked to re-start the therapy. We can conclude that this product is highly effective in young women suffering from vaginal dryness and sexual dysfunction caused by oxidative stress.
17 Giugno 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0008

Probiotics – a final countdown for caries

Janczarek M.
The development of contemporary knowledge in the field of oral microbiology and probiotics was commenced by Elie Metchnikoff’s report on Lactobacillus bulgaricus in 1907. Since then, multiple indications for the use of probiotics have been established, following the WHO definition: “probiotics are live microorganisms, which when applied in adequate amount may benefit the host health status”. In accordance with a general classification, several types of bacteria and fungi have been distinguished and, moreover, their mechanisms of action run parallel in both the gut and oral cavity. The possible use of probiotics in dentistry is a relatively new idea. Until now, three species prevailed in available research: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus reuteri. Current research focuses on the application of probiotics and the natural displacement of cariogenic bacteria within the oral cavity, and the subsequent alteration of health status in both adults and children. Carioblis BLIS M18 probiotic, which contains freeze-dried cultures of Streptococcus salivarius M18, was introduced to the market as a supplement indicated for patients with a high caries rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the BLIS M18 strain on oral cavity microflora and estimate possible health outcomes.
28 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0007

Food neophobia status in Ardabil children

Mohajeri M, Barzegar A, Nemati A.
Food neophobia means not accepting a new food, which seems to be a protective mechanism against new foods. The aim of this study was to assess the food neophobia status in Ardabil children. The present study was a cross-sectional study to assess the situation of children's disgust at two to six years of age in households in Ardabil. A questionnaire relating to five main food groups was used to assess the type of food that was hated. A questionnaire containing four questions was completed to check the factors affecting food neophobia. The results of the study showed that 52.5% (95% confidence interval) of the children were suffering from food neophobia. The children in the study felt more disgusted about dairy products and vegetables. Parents have stated that their children refuse to eat fruit and vegetables. More than half of the children were suffering from food neophobia and the socioeconomic status of parents, parental employment and the type of child feeding before the age of two were among the factors influencing the disgust of children in the study.
24 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0006

The cardiometabolic risk: a new concept for old diseases

Derosa G, Maffioli P.
Among the most important risk factors for cardiometabolic disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus play a main role; these chronic diseases are involved in creating huge health expenditure, with respect to both clinical–instrumental analysis and from a pharmacological point of view. An earlier stage of these diseases is the pre-risk (Fig. 1), a condition that, if not properly recognized and treated, can progress to the documented risk. We will talk about pre-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia in primary prevention and dysglycaemia.
21 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0005

Bioavailability of menaquinone-7 in milk formulation. Comparison of different solubilization techniques

Cirilli I, Orlando P, Silvestri S, Marcheggiani F, Tiano L.
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is a type of vitamin K of fermentative origin that plays a key role in cardiovascular and bone health as a cofactor of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase enabling the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins, particularly at the extrahepatic level. Despite its proven biological efficacy and outstanding bioavailability over other dietary menaquinones, its presence in food is marginal, especially in the Western diet. Dairy products are a major dietary source of menaquinones of minor biological relevance for human health and constitute optimal carriers due to their lipid content. Dairy fortification with MK-7 represents an attractive formulative strategy, also for the high calcium and vitamin D content that may act synergistically in promoting vitamin K-dependent functions. However, limited solubility of MK-7 in aqueous solution may limit its use and affect its bioavailability in vivo. The present study compares the bioavailability of MK-7 in enriched 1%-fat milk either as a direct powder solution or a pre-emulsified dispersion. Bioavailability data show that formulation strategies strongly affect the bioavailability of MK-7 and that the results are greatly improved when it is prepared as an oil–water emulsion.
16 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0004

A comparison of in-field fat mass evaluation techniques: a practical perspective

Bertuccioli A, Vici G, Ceci R, Cesanelli L, Belli L, Polzonetti V.
Nutritional status assessment of the individual is a key aspect in the monitoring of health status. In this context, body composition evaluation results are of fundamental importance. Several body composition techniques can be used depending on the information needed and the examined categories, and all the techniques are characterized by advantages and disadvantages. In this regard, this study aims to evaluate and compare the most commonly used techniques to evaluate body fat mass percentages in different situations. Fifty subjects took part in the study. Anthropometric data were collected and the percentage of fat mass was estimated using three different techniques: circumference, skinfold and ultrasound. Correlation strength among techniques was evaluated and the level of agreement among techniques was determined. Inferential analysis was performed and the percentage error of each technique for each individual was calculated. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger coefficient between skinfold and ultrasounds than between skinfold and circumferences (respectively, r=0.932 and r=0.686). Delta fat mass percentages were similar, approximately 5%, both when considering skinfold–ultrasound and skinfold–circumference. Stratifying the population by gender, it was observed that the correlation is worse in women than in men. In the case of stratification by BMI, in the ‘Obese’ grouping, the correlation coefficient was small, independent of the technique. Comparing these techniques has highlighted some critical features of single methods, especially considering specific target populations. This highlights the importance of the use of coupled techniques or the inadequacy of one with respect to another for particular categories.
16 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0003

Enterococcus as probiotics: what is the advantage?

Suvorov AN, Ermolenko EI, Alechina G, Chernysh A, Karaseva A, Di Pierro F.
Enterococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria which normally colonize the intestines of mammals including humans [1]. Enterococci are among the first bacterial colonizers after birth and are able to proliferate in both the large and the small intestine. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are the most common species of enterococcus found in human feces. However, enterococci can also cause serious infection including sepsis, pneumonia, ophthalmitis, nephritis and osteomyelitis, mainly as complications of various chronic conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis such as cancer, AIDS or chronic renal failure [2]. Most clinical strains of enterococci belong to the two species E. faecium and E. faecalis, with vancomycin-resistant enterococcal strains (VRE) being the most common cause of lethal infection. Several virulence genes have been discovered in enterococci, allowing the identification of potentially hazardous strains [3]. At the same time, enterococci have a long history, being used as starters for making fermented food products from meat, milk or vegetables [4]. Many enterococcal strains (SF68, M74, LX, etc.) from that group of probiotic strains have been used for a long time as clinically effective probiotics.
9 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0002

Association of socioeconomic gradients with obesity in children

Mohajeri M, Barzegar A, Nemati A.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of socioeconomic status on the body mass index (BMI) of primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 280 children aged 6 to 11 years allocated to three groups based on BMI: underweight, ideal weight and overweight/obesity. Socioeconomic status was determined based on the responses of parents/caregivers to a specific form. Data analysis involved the employment of the Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney U and chi-square tests as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses. In the final multiple regression model, BMI was influenced by monthly household income (coef=0.223; CI: 1.014 to 1.503). Children from families with a higher monthly income had a higher BMI.
9 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0001

The protective effect of Enterococcus faecium L-3 in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats is dose-dependent

Abdurasulova IN, Matsulevich AV, Kirik OV, Tarasova EA, Ermolenko EI, Korzevskii DE, Klimenko VM, Di Pierro F, Suvorov AN.
Recent data demonstrate that disruption of the intestinal microbiocoenosis might be the cause of several neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, where the nervous tissue is damaged by the individual’s own immune system. The autoimmune character of MS is largely supported by the positive effects of treatment aimed at suppressing the activity of aggressive immune cells. Since probiotics have an immunomodulatory effect, they can not only correct dysbiosis, but also provide a complex immunomodulatory effect on MS. Enterococcus faecium L-3 is one of the probiotic strains which has been shown to have a protective effect on the course of the disease induced in the animal model of MS (known as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; EAE). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different doses of E. faecium L-3 on the course of EAE in rats. EAE was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of a homologous spinal cord emulsified into complete Freund’s adjuvant. It is shown that the extent of the protective action of E. faecium L-3 depends on the dose used, with the greatest effect on reducing the severity of EAE observed with a dose of 8.0 lg CFU/ml. Amelioration of the course of EAE in rats receiving the probiotic was accompanied by decreased inflammation and reduced damage to neurons in the spinal cord. Research shows that the use of E. faecium L-3 at an optimum concentration of bacteria may be beneficial for patients with MS.