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13 Aprile 2021
DOI: 10.17470/NF-021-0031

Effects of the cooking of mushrooms (Cantharellus symoensii; firifiti) on vitamin C, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity

Ndlovu TV, Reid T, Chipurura B
Thermal treatments may lead to the degradation of phytochemical compounds in foods of plant origin. The selection of cooking methods is key to preventing nutritional losses. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of different cooking methods on vitamin C, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in Cantharellus symoensii (firifiti). Frying significantly (p≤0.05) decreased vitamin C content, but significantly (p≤0.05) increased total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Boiling significantly (p≤0.05) decreased vitamin C, total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Microwaving resulted in a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, but significantly (p≤0.05) reduced vitamin C and flavonoid content. Baking significantly (p≤0.05) decreased vitamin C and flavonoid content, but significantly (p≤0.05) increased the total phenolic content. All of the cooking methods decreased the vitamin C content. The order of DPPH activity was: fried > baked > microwaved > raw > boiled. From the four cooking methods studied, frying was established as being the most effective cooking method for retaining or enhancing mushroom bioactive compounds.
15 Marzo 2021
DOI: 10.17470/NF-021-0030

In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of Nutri-pepper enhancer in human-like kidney and hepatic cells and mouse fibroblasts

Ann YC, Jam S, Tuah L
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Nutri-pepper enhancer in fibroblasts, hepatic and kidney cells by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed no significant cytotoxic effects of Nutri-pepper enhancer on fibroblasts, hepatic and kidney cells at a concentration range of 0.9375–60 μg/ml. The IC50 values of the sample against the tested cell lines ranged between 5.53–14.39 μg/ml, which are much higher than those for the positive control with the IC50 values ranging between 0.0238–0.1179 μg/ml. This finding indicates that Nutri-pepper enhancer is not cytotoxic to fibroblast, kidney and hepatic cells.
29 Gennaio 2021
DOI: 10.17470/NF-021-0029

Use of a highly standardized mixture of Vitis vinifera, Ginkgo biloba and Melilotus officinalis extracts in the treatment of cellulite: a biopharmaceutical approach

Bertuccioli A, Bressan A, Biagi A, Neri M, Zonzini G
Cellulite currently remains a controversial topic to be defined and fully explained. The genesis of cellulite has a highly complex pathophysiology, which includes expansion of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, fibrotic dermal septa formation, progressive skin laxity, atrophy and structural modification of some dermal components. These alterations could also be caused by insufficiency of the precapillary sphincters affected by the development of cellulite. The study here encompassed a retrospective clinical trial that analyzed the results of 90 days of treatment in 21 adult women aged between 24 and 53 who underwent a motor programme for the treatment of cellulite along with using two different food supplements. The first was based on extracts of Vitis vinifera, Ginkgo biloba and Melilotus officinalis, with two subgroups at a dosage of two and three tablets per day, respectively; the second was based on carnosine and beta-alanine, constituting a control group. The weight, height, waist, hip, proximal thigh, mid-thigh, distal thigh and calf circumferences were measured for all subjects. There were no appreciable variations with respect to weight, BMI, waist circumference or the waist-to-hip ratio. The consumption of the mixture of Vitis vinifera, Ginkgo biloba and Melilotus officinalis extracts was associated with a greater reduction in hip circumference and thigh circumferences with a dosage of two tablets/day compared to three tablets/day, and compared to the control. The sample size yielded interesting but still not completely unequivocal results. Further studies with a greater number of subjects will be required to clarify the extent of the results obtained, while investigating the posology to determine the most effective treatment within the timeframe considered.
20 Novembre 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0028

Is body fluid status affected by different electrolyte solutions during endurance cycling?

Bertuccioli A, Neri M, Buccarini A
Fatigue development in endurance sports has several causes; among these, dehydration can impair performance. Both water and electrolytes are lost during exercise, in particular, when exercising in hot environments. These losses must be replaced, with carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, in different forms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different hydrating solutions on body fluid status. Nine male recreational cyclists performed three experimental trials on separate days: trials consisted of a two-hour endurance ride, with three different hydration solutions, consumed in a randomized order (water, water+powder, water+gel). Body weight was measured, and bioimpedance vector analysis was performed both before and after each trial. Changes from pre- to post-training in the impedance vector, phase angle, total body water and extracellular water were then compared between the three conditions, using MANOVA for repeated measures. A time × treatment effect was shown for the total body water (p=0.05) and impedance vector (p=0.032), with both the powder and gel differing from the water-only condition. Powder and gel solutions have been shown to be equally effective in limiting the negative effects of dehydration, preventing the loss of total body water. However, gels may represent a practical advantage for endurance athletes, especially those who take part in long-distance races.
20 Novembre 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0027

The influence of solvent nature on the extraction yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pleurotus floridanus and Pleurotus sajor-caju and study of the effects of extract mixtures on oxidative stress

Etoundi BOC, Kayo VTC, Deudje ONS, Djamen BMA, Nangmou MNB, Azebaze BAG
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Edible mushrooms, especially Pleurotus spp., are considered to be a natural source of potential antioxidants. This work investigated the influence of solvent nature on the extraction yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pleurotus floridanus and Pleurotus sajor-caju and the influence of extract mixture concentrations on oxidative stress. Extracts from each mushroom species and mixtures (1w:1w:1w) were produced by macerating the powders (1w:5v) in different solvents: distilled water, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane. The extraction yield was then determined and the antioxidant activity was evaluated for the extracts and formulations, with ascorbic acid used as a standard. Based on the best yield and antioxidant activity in vitro, the aqueous extract mixture was used for acute toxicity testing (at 2000 mg/kg BW), and its effects at 250 and 500 mg/kg BW over 14 days on oxidative stress induced in vivo by lead acetate (35 mg/kg BW every two days) were compared. Ascorbic acid was used as a reference. Oxidative stress markers were assessed in serum and homogenized tissue. We found that water had the best yield (66.32% for P. pulmonarius, 68.56% for P. floridanus and 65.40% for P. sajor-caju), followed by the ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane extracts. In addition, all extracts and formulations had significant ferric reducing antioxidant power at C = 1 mg/ml (62.59–546.67 mg AAE/g), good scavenging activity as assessed by the DPPH free radical assay at C = 25 mg/ml (63.08– 78.52%) and significant polyphenol content at C = 100 mg/ml (1.69–26.50 mg CE/g) with the best results seen with the aqueous extracts. The aqueous extract mixture showed no particular signs of toxicity. After lead exposure, significant increases were observed with respect to serum transaminase activity and creatinine and urea levels, but a decrease in total protein levels was found. In addition, a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels but a decrease in reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity was noted in the serum, liver and kidneys. Treatment with the mixture brought about a significant amelioration in terms of antioxidant parameters, with the greatest effect seen with a dose of 500 mg/kg BW, as well as with the ascorbic acid used as a reference. The results here suggest that these mushrooms, due to their antioxidant potential, are beneficial for health and could be useful for the production of medicinal products and nutraceuticals.
27 Agosto 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0026

Human milk oligosaccharides and antibiotics: a valuable combination to control infectious diseases

Adams C, Gutiérrez B
Infectious diseases remain a major health challenge and are becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A novel approach is to exploit human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are now known to reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases among breastfed infants. HMOs have bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against a wide range of important pathogens, such as Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridioides difficile, Entamoeba histolytica and Candida albicans. Furthermore, HMOs can act synergistically with antibiotics, reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration for certain antibiotics by up to 32-fold. This could extend the therapeutic window of some antibiotics and also reduce the doses required to treat infectious diseases. Given the risk posed by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, it would be advantageous to further exploit this synergism between antibiotics and HMOs.
3 Agosto 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0025

Regulatory aspects of nutraceuticals and functional foods in Nepal

Lamichhane G, Pandeya PR
Nutraceuticals are garnering increased interest among people throughout the world at the present time. Although the consumption of functional foods has taken place since the Ayurvedic era, the term ‘nutraceutical’ has only been coined recently. With the growing nutraceutical market and its impact on population health, regulation of these food products is warranted. There are different regulatory requirements for nutraceuticals throughout the world. In Nepal, nutraceuticals are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Guideline published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development. This Guideline aims to protect the health of the consumer and uphold service to the customer by controlling and assuring the stated composition and purity of the nutritional supplementary food, along with defining quality standards, as stated in the preamble of the Guideline. Functional foods are subdivided into six different classes; these are controlled in terms of production, sale, export and import within the territory of Nepal by this Guideline. Even though there are strict laws, unnecessary prescription of nutraceuticals for financial benefit and the sale of unauthorized herbal formulations and nutraceuticals by street vendors are still common practices. We believe the Nepalese authorities should make a greater effort to halt such practices.
3 Agosto 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0024

COVID-19, interleukin-6, androgen receptor and the adipose organ: what are the possible targets of this association?

Bertuccioli A, Balducci D, Neri M, Bressan A
On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19 the first pandemic due to a coronavirus. Clinical severity can vary significantly; some patients are asymptomatic, others develop mild infections of the upper respiratory tract, while others develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Risk factors are elderly age, a high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and chronic comorbidities. The knowledge of these factors is very important but they do not explain the disparity between the sexes or the deaths of young patients who did not have any health problems before the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the various factors that could help explain these dynamics, it is of great interest to investigate the potential contribution of the soluble androgen receptor (AR) and of the adipose organ, with particular reference to the actions of leptin. If what was proposed in this analysis were confirmed by surveys, it would be possible to consider acting at the level of these molecular objectives, with different synthesized or extracted molecules including bicalutamide and magnolol for AR, and curcumin, silibinin and other molecules for leptin. Further studies are needed to validate this suggestion. These studies could help to find new treatments and provide useful information for a better assessment of the risk of serious SARS-CoV-2-related disease, taking into account the susceptibility and characteristics of the host.
22 Giugno 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0023

Impact of 8 weeks of supplementation with Withania somnifera on strength in trained individuals

Cesanelli L, Vici G, Camilletti D, Ceci R, Belli L, Polzonetti V
Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional Ayurvedic herb. In addition to Ayurveda texts, the modern medical literature reports many potential health benefits of WS, including its possible use as a supplement as an ergogenic aid. Only recently, the efficacy of WS as an adjuvant to resistance training programmes was assessed. Most of the studies investigating this research area have mainly considered untrained subjects. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of eight weeks of WS supplementation on strength training adaptations in trained individuals. Sixteen trained male individuals (25.7 ± 3.0 years; 74.7 ± 6.9 kg; 178.9 ± 4.5 cm; 23.3 ± 1.1 BMI), with at least four years of resistance training experience, participated in the study. Individuals continued with their resistance–strength training programmes, while diets and supplementation strategies remained unchanged. Eight of the 16 subjects (treated group) were supplemented with WS (500 mg/d WS powder extract, withanolides 2.5%) for a period of eight weeks, while the other eight subjects (control group) were not supplemented. To evaluate strength, one-repetition maximum tests (1RMs) were performed in four selected exercises at the beginning (T1), in the middle (T2) and at the end (T3) of the study. Compared to the untreated group, treated individuals showed a significant increase in total maximal strength (the sum of 1RM results) (p=0.05); however, no significant differences emerged from any single exercise maximal strength comparisons. These preliminary data suggest that, in these experimental conditions, eight weeks of supplementation with WS does not appear to contribute significantly to the induction of strength training adaptations in trained individuals.
22 Giugno 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0022

Preparation, characterization and evaluation of a vitamin-enriched dietary supplement from Vigna radiata L. microgreens

Lekshmi GP, Nair BR
The present study attempted to develop a simple protocol for the transformation of vitamin-rich microgreens of Vigna radiata into microcapsules with a longer shelf life. The microencapsulation method adopted was the coupling ionotropic gelation method followed by lyophilization. The microcapsules thus produced were characterized based on weight, swelling index, vitamin content and also, the range and magnitude of in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF: pH 1.2; SIF: pH 6.8, 7.4). The results showed that the microcapsules undergo high water loss during hydrogel to xerogel conversion (96.525%) and have a high swelling index (5.76) in SGF. The release rate of the enclosed vitamins was found to be very low in gastric conditions (SGF) but high in intestinal conditions (SIF). The timecourse of vitamin release (over 1–6 hours) was found to be linear and probably diffusion-controlled. Hence, microcapsules developed through this technology can be potentially used as natural and biodegradable dietary supplements that can replace and thereby reduce the health risk associated with artificial supplements.
4 Maggio 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0021

Supplementation with SEPIFITTM Protect, a complex of a natural red wine extract, vitamin E and zinc, improves exercise recovery in healthy men

Kern C, Garcia C
A period of intense or prolonged muscle activity can cause a decline in performance, which can range from muscle weakness to muscle damage and soreness. Muscle fatigue can be largely reversible in minutes or hours. It is generally viewed to be the result of insufficient energy and a lack of availability of key metabolites that enable contracting muscles to meet increased energy demand. However, muscle recovery can fail to take effect quickly, and this can be associated with structural changes and damage within the muscle, inducing a cascade of events leading to immediate or delayed soreness. In previous research, SEPIFIT TM Protect, a combination of natural red wine polyphenols, zinc and vitamin E, showed in vitro efficacy with respect to lactate, interleukin-6 and creatine kinase, which are markers of muscle damage and fatigue. We have therefore conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the effects of this active complex in healthy men undertaking regular and stable physical activity and who were subjected to a pain induction protocol. The results showed that the consumption of 135 mg of the complex per day for 12 days was effective in reducing creatine kinase release and maintaining muscular power capacity after the pain induction protocol. It also induced a better perception of performance, physical condition and muscle soreness. SEPIFIT TM Protect can thus be considered an interesting complex to contribute to muscle recovery during physical exertion.
30 Aprile 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0020

Nutraceutical role of citrates in tissue pH balance: analysis and clinical interpretation of results obtained from urinary pH

Bertuccioli A, Rapacioli G, Ferrara T
Unbalanced diets with a high protein load, illness, abuse of drugs and ageing are some of the many elements predisposing to alter tissue pH balance. This, poorly compensated for by buffer systems acting to maintain the acid-base balance, can be a harbinger of: 1) calcium phosphate removal from the bones with osteopenia and, later, osteoporosis; 2) symptomatic aggravation of various pre-existing conditions typically characterized by the presence of pain (arthritis, headache, myalgia and so on); 3) the genesis of new diseases. The scientific literature clearly reports that the administration of citrates, or carbonates, support physiological pH tissue balance and alkalizes urinary pH. In addition, this effect, could reduce the risk of osteopenia and the perception of pain. Non-allopathic medicine describes a situation that is even more severe, secondary to that described above. Wit the progression of impaired balance, the body, probably in an attempt to limit the damage to skeleton structures, could bring about the storage of excess acid in the extracellular matrix by preventing its further elimination in urine, which would then be paradoxically alkaline. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that, even in this case, the administration of citrates can normalize urinary pH, making it acidic. This urinary normalization would be the result of the release of stored acid from connective tissue. This release would also lead to balance tissue pH and this would be monitored through observing the typical symptoms of patients with osteoarthritis, myalgia, headache and migraine, the incidence of which should be significantly reduced.
15 Aprile 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0019

The oral intake of specific Bioactive Collagen Peptides has a positive effect on hair thickness

Oesser S
The effectiveness of supplementation with Bioactive Collagen Peptides (BCP) on the health and appearance of the skin and nails has been proven in several clinical trials. The influence of BCP supplementation on hair, however, has not been investigated to the same extent. In this placebo-controlled study, therefore, the effects of BCP intake on hair thickness and metabolism were investigated. The study was conducted on 44 healthy women aged between 39 and 75, who each received a daily dosage of 2.5 g BCP or placebo. After a treatment period of 16 weeks, hair thickness was determined and compared with the thickness at the beginning of the trial. In addition, the proliferation rate of human hair follicle cells that had been exposed to BCP was examined and the results compared with untreated control cells. The data showed a statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in the cell proliferation rate of 31% compared to the controls. The measurement of hair thickness showed a statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in the BCP group compared to placebo. Over the course of the collagen peptide treatment, hair thickness increased significantly by 1.93 ± 0.42 μm (p<0.01), whereas a slight decrease in hair thickness of -0.99 ± 0.40 μm (p=0.07) was measured in the placebo group. This clearly demonstrates the positive effect of BCP treatment on hair thickness and follicle cell proliferation.
27 Marzo 2020
DOI: 10.17470/NF-020-0018

Positive effect of fish-derived Bioactive Collagen Peptides on skin health

Proksch E, Schunck M, Oesser S
The positive effect of orally administered collagen peptides on skin health has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. In this placebo-controlled study, the impact of specific fish-derived Bioactive Collagen Peptides (BCP) on skin elasticity and wrinkle reduction was investigated. A total of 76 Asian and Caucasian women (62.2 ± 8.2 years of age) received a daily dosage of 5 g BCP or placebo. Skin elasticity and changes in eye wrinkle volume were evaluated at the beginning of the study, after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks after the last intake (regression phase). In a subgroup analysis, differences between the results for Asian and Caucasian participants were investigated. The data showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in skin elasticity after only 4 weeks of BCP supplementation, compared with placebo. This positive effect persisted after 8 weeks of supplementation, and 4 weeks after BCP intake was stopped (p<0.05). Wrinkle volume was also reduced in a statistically significantly (p<0.05) manner after BCP treatment, compared to placebo. A pronounced decrease in eye wrinkle volume could be determined 4 weeks after BCP treatment commenced. After 8 weeks, a wrinkle reduction of 15% was observed and the efficacy of the treatment was confirmed at the end of the regression phase (p<0.05). The subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant differences. The BCP treatment was effective in both Asian and Caucasian subjects. The results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of orally administered fish-derived BCP on skin health.
28 Novembre 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0017

Human milk oligosaccharides and the GI microbiota: is there a rationale for the use of HMOs in autism?

Adams CA, Gutiérrez B.
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a key role in health and disease. It also has a longdistance effect influencing the brain through the gut–brain axis. The establishment of an effective GI microbiota is associated with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In animal studies there is evidence that HMOs can influence brain activity and cognitive development. This further suggests that management of the GI microbiota by dietary means could impact upon a wide range of diseases. Autism, which is the familiar name for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), comprises a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, repetitive and stereotypical behaviours, insistence on routines and communication impairments. GI abnormalities are a characteristic of a substantial number of children with ASD. These children possess a lower overall abundance of beneficial taxa, such as Bifidobacteria and Akkermansia, in the GI microbiota. Many children with ASD have higher counts of potentially pathogenic Clostridia than normally developing children. The underlying pathophysiology of ASD remains unknown although sub-optimal breast-feeding practices are associated with ASD. HMOs selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria in the GI tract, which is associated with numerous beneficial health outcomes. There are two potential benefits of HMOs in alleviating autism. Firstly, supplying HMOs to infants though breast-feeding can help establish a functional GI microbiota and thus avoid GI dysbiosis which is commonly related to the onset of autism. Secondly, administration of HMOs may alleviate the symptoms of autism through an effect on the gut–brain axis.
15 Ottobre 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0016

Efficacy of polyketide pigment produced by Monascus purpureus and its biological activity

Gajalakshmi P, Raja A, Banu HMV.
Monascus purpureus (MTCC 1090) was obtained from the IMTECH Culture Collection Centre, Chandigarh, India. Extracellular and intracellular polyketide pigment was produced by solidstate fermentation using red rice production and pigments were extracted with methanol solvent. Maximum pigment production was found with intracellular extraction and the total yield of pigment was 41 U/g followed by 33 U/g for extracellular production by substrate fermentation. Crude pigments were separated by column chromatography and an antibacterial study revealed that the yellow pigment was most effective against all test pathogens and the red pigment was found to be a potent antioxidant. The greatest antagonistic activity was almost 91% against Trichophyton rubrum followed by 88% against Microsporum canis.
26 Settembre 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0015

Retrospective analysis of the effects of a gum gel intended to treat signs and symptoms of teething in infants

Di Pierro F, Risso P, Bertuccioli A, Donato G.
Teething discomfort is a widespread disorder affecting a very high percentage of infants. It creates anxiety in parents, who look for help in paediatric clinics. The use of hyaluronic acid gels has been shown in the last 20 years to be an effective tool, generally devoid of side effects, in reducing oral mucosal inflammation in adults. Recently, such results have also been confirmed in infants affected by teething. From our routine practice results, we have retrospectively reported the efficacy and the safety profile of Bonjela® Soothing Teething Gel, a teething gel capable of addressing in a significant way this infant complaint, which improves all of the clinical outcomes used in these types of study to describe the clinical condition of infants.
20 Settembre 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0014

Clinical evaluation of a hyaluronic acid-based medical device in counteracting aphthous stomatitis in adults

Di Pierro F, Giuberti R, Risso P, Bertuccioli A.
Oral mucosal ulcers are quite common in an otherwise healthy population, and can determine a real worsening of the quality of life. Conventional therapy is not appropriate since ulcers often recur and, even if not needed, therapy lasting not less than 2–3 weeks carries a high risk of serious side effects. The use of hyaluronic acid applied as an adhesive gel over the lesions seems to have potential in terms of efficacy and the avoidance of side effects. Of course, hyaluronic acid-based formulations show different effects and tolerability. In our study, we retrospectively report the results obtained using a medical device, Bloxaphte®, applied for 14 days to counteract ulcers in adults. Our data clearly demonstrate the healing capability and safety profile of the product in reducing the number and size of the ulcers within the first week of daily application.
16 Settembre 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0013

Analgesic effects of RodeMyr®, a Commiphora molmol extract with a highly standardized furanodiene content

Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Giuberti R.
Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, curzerene and lindestrene are thought to be the active principles underlying the analgesic action of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) extract. Recently, a very highly standardized dry extract from myrrh has been developed (RodeMyr®) and formulated in a single active nutritional supplement (Mirra+®), notified to the Italian Health Authorities in 2018. We have therefore used such a finished product to evaluate the analgesic action of myrrh in subjects affected by chronic pain. The results of the study have shown that the use of 100 mg of dry myrrh extract, administered twice a day, is effective in reducing pain perception and functio laesa both as a sole and an add-on therapy. Tolerability, compliance and side effect evaluation demonstrated the safety profile of the extract and its usefulness in treating patients with chronic pain.
16 Settembre 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0012

Antibiotic resistance profile and adhesion properties of Lactobacillus crispatus M247

Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Sagheddu V, Cattivelli D, Soldi S, Elli M.
In an attempt to better characterize the strain M247, a strain of Lactobacillus crispatus isolated in 1989 from the faeces of a healthy newborn baby, we have further investigated its antibiotic resistance profile, evaluating also antibiotics not recommended by the EFSA, and analyzing in addition its viability in the presence of a high concentration of boric acid, a molecule commonly use to eradicate antimycotic-resistant fungi from the vagina. At the same time, we have evaluated the ability of M247 to adhere to vaginal epithelial cells to get a better understanding of its vaginal colonizing properties. According to the obtained results, M247 appears to be insensitive to metronidazole, sulfamethoxazole and boric acid. Such resistance is not transferrable due to the total absence of mobile elements inside its genome. Moreover, the M247 strain has been shown to adhere by more than 70% to vaginal epithelial cells, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation of its vaginal colonizing capabilities observed both after local and oral use.
28 Agosto 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0011

Streptococcus salivarius K12 in pharyngotonsillitis and acute otitis media – a meta-analysis

Bertuccioli A, Rocchi M, Morganti I, Vici G, Gervasi M, Amatori S, Sisti D.
The oral administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12 represents a valid solution for the prevention of pharyngitis or pharyngotonsillitis, of bacterial or viral origin, and/or acute otitis media. In particular, this could be an interesting alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with relapse or disease recurrence. In this regard, the studies published in the scientific literature are limited, and thus, it was of interest to provide a meta-analysis in order to analyze in more detail the results obtained in this research field. For the meta-analysis, clinical studies were selected, as identified through PubMed, which examined the relationship between the use of formulations based on Streptococcus salivarius K12 and the number of cases or episodes of pharyngitis or pharyngotonsillitis, of bacterial or viral origin, and acute otitis media in children and adults. The effect size (ES) was calculated according to Cohen using the fixed effects model (fixed effects). Seven studies met the predefined inclusion criteria and they were included in the meta-analysis. ES values equal to -1.40 [-1.67; -1.13] and -1.01 [-1.19; -0.83] were obtained for the effect of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the prevention of pharyngitis and acute otitis media, respectively. Both values were translated into a "big effect" according to Cohen's scale. Treatment based on this strain is effective for both the prevention of pharyngitis and acute otitis media. In addition, it is further revealed that the strain is more effective in the prevention of pharyngitis. It is desirable that further clinical investigation continues to expand and update the meta-analysis work and to recommend the use of the strain as a useful prophylactic tool to reduce the events of pharyngotonsillitis and acute otitis media.
24 Giugno 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0010

Comprehensive review of the impact of modification on the properties of jackfruit seed starch and its applications

Kushwaha R, Singh V, Kaur D.
Jackfruit belongs to the family Moraceae and is used as a novel source of starch. In the native stage, starch granules are generally insoluble at room temperature, extremely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and display an inability to endure processing conditions related to pH, temperature, shear rate and freeze–thawing. Modification can be carried out using chemical, physical or enzymatic methods, or a combination of these. To solve this problem, modification of starches is usually conducted to alter pasting, gelatinization and retrogradation behavior. Modified starches have been recognized as a multifunctional excipient in various industries. This review covers a wide array of topics relating to starch, including: methods of modification; the impact of modification on morphology, crystallinity, viscosity and functionality; and the application of modified starch.
21 Giugno 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0009

Efficacy of an oral supplement containing hyaluronic acid, collagen, glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, alpha-lipoic acid, methylsulfonylmethane and vitamins on vaginal dryness in young women

Angelucci M, Frascani F, Garo ML.
This study evaluated the oral administration of a new supplement containing a combination of bioactive agents (hyaluronic acid, glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, alpha-lipoic acid, methylsulfonylmethane and vitamins A, C and E). The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the oral administration of this product combats vulvovaginal atrophy in young women. This observational study recruited 32 women of fertile age with vaginal dryness, post-coital cystitis and/or dyspareunia (painful intercourse). Patients were evaluated using the VHI scale and the FSFI at baseline and at each follow-up. All patients took one tablet of the supplement twice daily (morning and evening) for two months. After two months, 28 patients (87%) showed an improvement in symptoms and reported complete remission. At the first follow-up at three months, that is, one month after stopping treatment, no substantial changes were reported. At the second follow-up at four months, that is, two months after stopping treatment, vaginal dryness had recurred, and patients were asked to re-start the therapy. We can conclude that this product is highly effective in young women suffering from vaginal dryness and sexual dysfunction caused by oxidative stress.
17 Giugno 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0008

Probiotics – a final countdown for caries

Janczarek M.
The development of contemporary knowledge in the field of oral microbiology and probiotics was commenced by Elie Metchnikoff's report on Lactobacillus bulgaricus in 1907. Since then, multiple indications for the use of probiotics have been established, following the WHO definition: "probiotics are live microorganisms, which when applied in adequate amount may benefit the host health status". In accordance with a general classification, several types of bacteria and fungi have been distinguished and, moreover, their mechanisms of action run parallel in both the gut and oral cavity. The possible use of probiotics in dentistry is a relatively new idea. Until now, three species prevailed in available research: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus reuteri. Current research focuses on the application of probiotics and the natural displacement of cariogenic bacteria within the oral cavity, and the subsequent alteration of health status in both adults and children. Carioblis BLIS M18 probiotic, which contains freeze-dried cultures of Streptococcus salivarius M18, was introduced to the market as a supplement indicated for patients with a high caries rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the BLIS M18 strain on oral cavity microflora and estimate possible health outcomes.
28 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0007

Food neophobia status in Ardabil children

Mohajeri M, Barzegar A, Nemati A.
Food neophobia means not accepting a new food, which seems to be a protective mechanism against new foods. The aim of this study was to assess the food neophobia status in Ardabil children. The present study was a cross-sectional study to assess the situation of children's disgust at two to six years of age in households in Ardabil. A questionnaire relating to five main food groups was used to assess the type of food that was hated. A questionnaire containing four questions was completed to check the factors affecting food neophobia. The results of the study showed that 52.5% (95% confidence interval) of the children were suffering from food neophobia. The children in the study felt more disgusted about dairy products and vegetables. Parents have stated that their children refuse to eat fruit and vegetables. More than half of the children were suffering from food neophobia and the socioeconomic status of parents, parental employment and the type of child feeding before the age of two were among the factors influencing the disgust of children in the study.
24 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0006

The cardiometabolic risk: a new concept for old diseases

Derosa G, Maffioli P.
Among the most important risk factors for cardiometabolic disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus play a main role; these chronic diseases are involved in creating huge health expenditure, with respect to both clinical–instrumental analysis and from a pharmacological point of view. An earlier stage of these diseases is the pre-risk (Fig. 1), a condition that, if not properly recognized and treated, can progress to the documented risk. We will talk about pre-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia in primary prevention and dysglycaemia.
21 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0005

Bioavailability of menaquinone-7 in milk formulation. Comparison of different solubilization techniques

Cirilli I, Orlando P, Silvestri S, Marcheggiani F, Tiano L.
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is a type of vitamin K of fermentative origin that plays a key role in cardiovascular and bone health as a cofactor of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase enabling the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins, particularly at the extrahepatic level. Despite its proven biological efficacy and outstanding bioavailability over other dietary menaquinones, its presence in food is marginal, especially in the Western diet. Dairy products are a major dietary source of menaquinones of minor biological relevance for human health and constitute optimal carriers due to their lipid content. Dairy fortification with MK-7 represents an attractive formulative strategy, also for the high calcium and vitamin D content that may act synergistically in promoting vitamin K-dependent functions. However, limited solubility of MK-7 in aqueous solution may limit its use and affect its bioavailability in vivo. The present study compares the bioavailability of MK-7 in enriched 1%-fat milk either as a direct powder solution or a pre-emulsified dispersion. Bioavailability data show that formulation strategies strongly affect the bioavailability of MK-7 and that the results are greatly improved when it is prepared as an oil–water emulsion.
16 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0004

A comparison of in-field fat mass evaluation techniques: a practical perspective

Bertuccioli A, Vici G, Ceci R, Cesanelli L, Belli L, Polzonetti V.
Nutritional status assessment of the individual is a key aspect in the monitoring of health status. In this context, body composition evaluation results are of fundamental importance. Several body composition techniques can be used depending on the information needed and the examined categories, and all the techniques are characterized by advantages and disadvantages. In this regard, this study aims to evaluate and compare the most commonly used techniques to evaluate body fat mass percentages in different situations. Fifty subjects took part in the study. Anthropometric data were collected and the percentage of fat mass was estimated using three different techniques: circumference, skinfold and ultrasound. Correlation strength among techniques was evaluated and the level of agreement among techniques was determined. Inferential analysis was performed and the percentage error of each technique for each individual was calculated. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger coefficient between skinfold and ultrasounds than between skinfold and circumferences (respectively, r=0.932 and r=0.686). Delta fat mass percentages were similar, approximately 5%, both when considering skinfold–ultrasound and skinfold–circumference. Stratifying the population by gender, it was observed that the correlation is worse in women than in men. In the case of stratification by BMI, in the ‘Obese’ grouping, the correlation coefficient was small, independent of the technique. Comparing these techniques has highlighted some critical features of single methods, especially considering specific target populations. This highlights the importance of the use of coupled techniques or the inadequacy of one with respect to another for particular categories.
16 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0003

Enterococcus as probiotics: what is the advantage?

Suvorov AN, Ermolenko EI, Alechina G, Chernysh A, Karaseva A, Di Pierro F.
Enterococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria which normally colonize the intestines of mammals including humans [1]. Enterococci are among the first bacterial colonizers after birth and are able to proliferate in both the large and the small intestine. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are the most common species of enterococcus found in human feces. However, enterococci can also cause serious infection including sepsis, pneumonia, ophthalmitis, nephritis and osteomyelitis, mainly as complications of various chronic conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis such as cancer, AIDS or chronic renal failure [2]. Most clinical strains of enterococci belong to the two species E. faecium and E. faecalis, with vancomycin-resistant enterococcal strains (VRE) being the most common cause of lethal infection. Several virulence genes have been discovered in enterococci, allowing the identification of potentially hazardous strains [3]. At the same time, enterococci have a long history, being used as starters for making fermented food products from meat, milk or vegetables [4]. Many enterococcal strains (SF68, M74, LX, etc.) from that group of probiotic strains have been used for a long time as clinically effective probiotics. The current paper summarizes the probiotic effects of one Enterococcus faecium strain—E. faecium L3. This strain was originally isolated from starter culture used in the Russian food industry. The strain was fully characterized microbiologically and genetically and tested for the absence of virulence genes, safety in laboratory animals and it immunomodulatory features. E. faecium L3 has been used in Russia in several probiotic products such as Laminolakt and Bakfir for the last 20 years. The benefits of the strain have been shown in several randomized clinical studies, including some where it was used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis and chronic hepatitis [5– 7]. In addition to other clinical effects such as anti-cancer properties, a significant cholesterol-lowering activity was also shown [8].
9 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0002

Association of socioeconomic gradients with obesity in children

Mohajeri M, Barzegar A, Nemati A.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of socioeconomic status on the body mass index (BMI) of primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 280 children aged 6 to 11 years allocated to three groups based on BMI: underweight, ideal weight and overweight/obesity. Socioeconomic status was determined based on the responses of parents/caregivers to a specific form. Data analysis involved the employment of the Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney U and chi-square tests as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses. In the final multiple regression model, BMI was influenced by monthly household income (coef=0.223; CI: 1.014 to 1.503). Children from families with a higher monthly income had a higher BMI.
9 Maggio 2019
DOI: 10.17470/NF-019-0001

The protective effect of Enterococcus faecium L-3 in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats is dose-dependent

Abdurasulova IN, Matsulevich AV, Kirik OV, Tarasova EA, Ermolenko EI, Korzevskii DE, Klimenko VM, Di Pierro F, Suvorov AN.
Recent data demonstrate that disruption of the intestinal microbiocoenosis might be the cause of several neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, where the nervous tissue is damaged by the individual's own immune system. The autoimmune character of MS is largely supported by the positive effects of treatment aimed at suppressing the activity of aggressive immune cells. Since probiotics have an immunomodulatory effect, they can not only correct dysbiosis, but also provide a complex immunomodulatory effect on MS. Enterococcus faecium L-3 is one of the probiotic strains which has been shown to have a protective effect on the course of the disease induced in the animal model of MS (known as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; EAE). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different doses of E. faecium L-3 on the course of EAE in rats. EAE was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of a homologous spinal cord emulsified into complete Freund's adjuvant. It is shown that the extent of the protective action of E. faecium L-3 depends on the dose used, with the greatest effect on reducing the severity of EAE observed with a dose of 8.0 lg CFU/ml. Amelioration of the course of EAE in rats receiving the probiotic was accompanied by decreased inflammation and reduced damage to neurons in the spinal cord. Research shows that the use of E. faecium L-3 at an optimum concentration of bacteria may be beneficial for patients with MS.
27 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1023-4

SHIME®: an advanced in vitro technology platform for studying the mode-of-action of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract

Duysburgh C, Van den Abbeele P, Marzorati M
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a key role in human health. Over the past few decades, a lot of attention has been directed at improving health by modulating the gut microbial composition using probiotics. In vivo studies have limitations in providing mechanistic insights into the effect of probiotics and cannot be used to screen numerous test compounds. However, in vitro approaches can be used for mechanistic research under highly controlled environmental conditions. Here we describe how the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®) can be used to produce data complementary to in vivo studies to help elucidate the mode-of-action of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract.
26 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1011-4

Effect of soaking, dehulling and boiling on protein, polyphenolic and antinutrient content of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

Chipurura B, Baudi JS, Munodawafa T, Benhura C
Legumes are good sources of protein and are rich in lysine and tryptophan, which are limiting amino acids in cereals. Common legumes include sugar beans, soya beans and cowpeas. Although soya beans are an important commercial legume, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties grown by some communities in developing countries have many food and non-food uses. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soaking, dehulling and boiling on the protein, polyphenolic and antinutrient content of cowpea varieties, namely CBC2 and CBC4. Phenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins were present in the cowpea varieties. Boiling caused a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in the protein content of both cowpea varieties. Soaking for 24 hours resulted in an insignificant (p>0.05) change in the protein content of CBC2, but significantly (p≤0.05) decreased the protein content of CBC4. On the other hand, dehulling seeds soaked for 6 hours resulted in a significant increase (p≤0.05) in the protein content of both varieties. Boiling caused a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and content of condensed tannins and saponins in both cowpea varieties. Also, soaking for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours significantly (p≤0.05) decreased the content of these phytochemicals. The greatest losses in TPC, TFC, condensed tannins and saponins for both varieties were observed in seeds soaked for 6 hours and dehulled samples. The results of this study show that boiling, soaking and dehulling reduced the protein, polyphenolic and antinutrient content of the cowpea varieties.
25 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1008-4

Role of vitamin D in insulin resistance

Derosa G, Maffioli P
There is plenty of evidence in the literature that vitamin D is essential for calcium homeostasis for optimal skeletal health. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a syndrome with major long-term negative consequences. Efforts have been made to find innovative approaches for diabetes prevention and treatment, and a recent focus has been on vitamin D supplementation. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance.
24 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1007-4

Climacteric symptoms during adjuvant treatment in hormone-responsive breast cancer patients: the underestimated role of Cimicifuga racemosa

Cazzaniga M
The treatment of breast cancer is complex, with a wide variety of surgical, radiotherapeutic, chemotherapeutic, biological and endocrine options available. Although these therapies have improved survival rates, adjuvant treatment does have side-effects. The main adverse effects, such as vasomotor symptoms, classically represented by hot flushes and night sweats, are related to anti-hormone therapy, which aims to block the estrogen receptor or destroy estrogen-producing tissue. Options generally include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), GnRH analogues and aromatase inhibitors, which all cause climacteric symptoms in most breast cancer survivors and have a big impact on their quality of life and treatment compliance. Classically, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been the gold standard treatment for menopausal hot flushes. However, this treatment has risks, and should not be the first option in women with breast cancer or at high risk of developing the disease. Many alternatives to HRT such as tibolone, phytoestrogens and antidepressants have been proposed in recent decades, but results have been controversial regarding efficacy and safety, and consequently compliance is poor. Therefore, interventions to improve compliance with adjuvant hormonal therapy are required. Black cohosh or Cimicifuga racemosa isopropanolic extract (Remifemin®) is a herbal medication frequently used for alleviating menopausal symptoms. Several recent studies have shown that patients with mild menopausal symptoms usually experience spontaneous remission after taking black cohosh, while those with moderate to severe symptoms may experience some benefit. No adverse effects or estrogen activity were reported with this compound. This review examined the effectiveness of black cohosh extract for relieving symptoms and improving quality of life in breast cancer survivors and high-risk women with moderate to severe menopausal symptoms.
24 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1006-4

The relationship between the gut microbiome and skin disorders: in search of new probiotics for dermatology

Ramón D, Navarro-López V, Ramírez-Boscà A, Pérez-Orquín JM, Chenoll E, Codoñer FM, Genovés S
Gut microbiome variations have been described in several skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis in children and psoriasis in adults. In both pathologies, an increase in blood markers for oxidative stress and inflammation has also been detected. Taking these results into account, we have developed specific blends of probiotics for each of these skin conditions which have also been studied in clinical trials. The results have shown that nutritional supplementation with these functional ingredients can improve the treatment of such skin disorders.
23 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1022-4

Improved bone healing after oral application of specific bioactive collagen peptides

Knefeli HC, Mueller-Autz M
The complete and undisturbed healing of bone fractures is a key priority for surgeons and patients, so intensive efforts are made to improve bone healing with a variety of approaches. Oral therapies with collagen peptides are a relatively new therapeutic approach. In this observational study, the impact of collagen peptides on bone healing was investigated in a group of 28 (14 verum/14 placebo) patients of both genders with different fracture locations. Some patients underwent surgery, while others were treated conservatively. The patients who received bioactive collagen peptide treatment (FORTIBONE®) had a clearly better outcome regarding bone healing than the placebo group, half of whom showed suboptimal or bad results. No side effects or intolerance to the product were reported. The results of this investigation confirm the positive impact of collagen peptides on bone healing. The data suggest that FORTIBONE® can be used to improve fracture healing, even in cases where a normal outcome is expected, and to achieve faster healing.
22 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1021-4

The benefits of human milk oligosaccharides in adult nutrition

Adams CA, Gutiérrez B
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) comprise a large family of extremely diverse oligosaccharides present in high concentrations and which generate a multitude of biological responses. They are generally considered to have a beneficial effect upon the establishment of the microbiota in infants, but they also exert this effect in adult humans. They can impede the attachment of pathogens and toxins such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella fyris, Helicobacter pylori, bacterial toxins, Entamoeba histolytica and viruses, to the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. This in effect reduces their pathogenicity as binding to receptors on the epithelial cells is a prerequisite for infection by pathogens. If the pathogens or toxins bind to the HMOs they will be removed from the gastrointestinal tract and not cause disease. Therefore, HMOs are putative protective agents against enteric infections in adults as well as in infants. HMOs are also useful as therapeutic or preventive adjuncts in gut motility disorders and gut pain, and possibly also have beneficial effects in reducing food allergies. Hence, dietary manipulation by the use of HMOs represents a strategy to promote a beneficial gut microbiota and provide health benefits to human adults as well as to infants.
21 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1009-4

Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010: scientific support for its use as an effective probiotic in the infant gut

Turroni F, Milani C, Duranti S, Lugli GA, Van Sinderen D, Ventura M
Many bifidobacterial strains are currently exploited as probiotic, or health-promoting, bacteria by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects on human health are generally poorly investigated and not properly understood. Therefore, the health-promoting activities of probiotic bacteria must be clinically investigated in order to satisfy regulatory agencies and to address public demands for effective and scientifically supported probiotic therapies. Here, we describe the current situation regarding Bifidobacterium bifidum strain PRL2010, and discuss evidence supporting its use as an effective probiotic for infants and expectant mothers.
20 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-0001-4

Lactobacillus crispatus M247: a possible tool to counteract CST IV

Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cattivelli D, Soldi S, Elli M
Bacterial CST (community state type) I is characterized by Lactobacillus crispatus dominance and is associated with a healthy vagina and a reduced risk of vaginosis, vaginitis, preterm birth, infertility and vaginal atrophy. On the other hand, CST IV is characterized by the absence of lactobacillus and is associated with unhealthy gynaecological conditions. Unfortunately, very few L. crispatus strains have been properly studied and documented for human use. Here we discuss the genetic, probiotic and vaginal colonization properties of strain M247, isolated in 1989 from infant faeces, and describe its possible gynaecological uses especially in woman characterized by CST IV.
19 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1013-3

Analysis of the effects of natural and pure culture fermentation for the qualitative enhancement of pearl millet flour

Rathore S, Singh K
Its high nutritive quality and ability to survive in harsh conditions makes pearl millet a suitable crop for arid and semi-arid regions, but anti-nutrient factors reduce the bioavailability and digestibility of its nutrients. Fermentation reduces anti-nutrients and hence increases protein digestibility and mineral bioavailability. Thus, the present work examines the effects of fermentation on the nutritive, physiochemical and functional properties and anti-nutrient composition of pearl millet flour. Natural fermentation at 20°C, 25°C and 30°C and pure culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces diastaticus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus brevis were performed. Analysis revealed an increase in moisture and fat content and a decrease in protein content following all types of fermentation. Although the variation in protein levels in different fermentations was not significant, ranging from 10.29% to 9.83%, the effect on thiamine content was significant as it decreased with an increase in temperature in the range 20–30˚C in natural fermentation but was increased in pure culture yeast fermentations as compared with bacterial fermentations at their favourable temperatures, respectively. Total soluble sugar content decreased in pure culture fermentation but increased in natural fermentation. Fermentation decreased pH, thereby increasing titratable acidity. Oil and water absorption capacities were increased, while least gelation concentration was decreased in all types of fermentations. Also, anti-nutritional factors like tannins and phenolic compounds were significantly decreased in all fermentations. We conclude that fermentation is an efficient process to improve the quality of pearl millet flour.
18 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1010-3

Sensory analysis of bar samples prepared from mahua (Madhuca longifolia) flower syrup using fuzzy logic

Singh V, Kumar S, Rai AK
Five bar samples, including a control bar, prepared from different percentages of mahua flower syrup were investigated using fuzzy logic sensory analysis. These bar samples were ranked against each other: the quality attributes of the bars (colour, flavour, stickiness, overall acceptability and taste) were scored and the bars rated. A panel of 15 judges performed the sensory evaluation. Analysis indicated that taste, overall acceptability and flavour were the main quality attributes, while stickiness and colour were less important. Fuzzy logic sensory analysis determined that the bar with 100% replacement of sugar with mahua flower syrup was the most acceptable.
18 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1016-3

Silymarin: an old remedy with a challenging future?

Morazzoni P, Corti F
Silymarin, a flavanolignan-containing standardized extract obtained from the fruits of Silybum marianum, is a traditional phytotherapic product widely used for the treatment of liver diseases including hepatitis , cirrhosis and bile secretion dysfunction. Recent preclinical data and some clinical investigations also support its use in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Despite this evidence, silymarin efficacy has not yet been supported by clear-cut dose-related pharmacokinetic data, although several attempts have been made to enhance the oral absorption of flavanolignans, its putative active principles. However, positive results have been obtained with lecithin-based formulations (Phytosome®) of silybin, the main flavanolignans in silymarin, which showed improved oral absorption in preclinical and clinical trials. The Phytosome® delivery system has also been applied to silymarin with promising preclinical results consistent with the oral bioavailability of most of the flavanolignans present in the extract. These data may help optimize the dose for clinical efficacy in liver protection and also pave the way for the use of silymarin in new therapeutic areas where recent findings indicate a major role for the entire phytocomplex.
17 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1013-3

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ): the next essential nutrient and supplement superstar

Murray M
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a novel vitamin-like compound that acts as an essential active factor in the functioning of mitochondria. However, as higher organisms do not seem to biosynthesize PQQ, the major source in humans is the diet. In addition to its role in mitochondria, PQQ stimulates growth and serves as a cofactor for a special class of enzymes involved in cellular functions including cellular growth, development, differentiation and survival. It also has possible pharmacological effects via activation of AMP-kinase (AMPk). Given the nutritional importance and numerous physiological effects of PQQ, there are many possible clinical applications. The most obvious are those chronic degenerative conditions that revolve around low mitochondrial function and aging, including degenerative neurological disease (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease), chronic inflammation, metabolic syndrome and obesity. It also holds promise as a clinical aid for simply improving energy levels and cognition. This review will highlight the pharmacology, clinical applications and dosage recommendations for this promising natural product.
16 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1017-3

Establishing a healthy microbiome with human milk oligosaccharides

Mukherjea R
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unique oligosaccharides found in mother’s milk. Collectively, HMOs constitute the third largest solute in human milk, after lactose and fat. The types and levels of HMO vary considerably among women, geographical regions and the stages of lactation. Over 130 different oligosaccharides have been identified in human milk, with 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) being the most abundant (~2 g/l). Recent innovations and regulatory approvals have enabled infant formula companies to incorporate 2’-FL into their products, helping infant formulas to become more like mother’s milk. This article explores the latest research on HMOs and their role in supporting digestive, immune and cognitive development in infants.
15 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-0001-3

Human milk oligosaccharides and selfish (or not selfish) Bifidobacterium strains

Di Pierro F
Human milk is a rich source of components that contribute to shaping the infant gut microbiota through a variety of mechanisms. After lactose and lipids, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs; Fig. 1) are the third most abundant components of human milk. One litre of mature human milk contains 5–20 g of these complex sugars, which often exceeds the amount of all human milk proteins combined. Oligosaccharide concentrations in colostrum are even higher [1]. To date, the molecular structures of more than 100 different HMOs have been characterized, but it is important to note that total amount and composition are highly variable between different women.
14 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1001-2

The preparation, stability, functionality and food enrichment ability of cinnamon oil-loaded nanoemulsion-based delivery systems: a review

Gharibzahedi SMT
Even though cinnamon oil (CO) has functional and health effects in humans because of the presence of the antioxidant cinnamaldehyde (CIA), its food applications have been limited due to its poor water solubility. Encapsulation of CO in stable nanodroplets is a unique strategy to enhance the stability and bioavailability of hydrophobic molecules in the CO structure. A literature review has been conducted on the formation of stable nanoscale droplets using low- and high-energy nanoemulsification methods, physicochemical and antimicrobial characterization, and the food application efficiency of CO micro/nanoemulsions. Although high-energy emulsification technologies are more commonly used to produce CO nanoemulsions, there is considerable interest in the fabrication of these delivery systems using the low-energy techniques of spontaneous emulsification and phase-inversion temperature. Processing and formulation (oil phase composition and surfactant content) variables were optimized to produce the smallest droplet size and slowest CIA release rate. Cinnamon and CIA nanoemulsions can effectively control pathogens in functional foods during processing and storage. A strong inhibitory effect on many microorganisms can also be exerted by small nanodroplets encapsulating these bioactive compounds into edible films to significantly decrease the synthetic preservative content. The antibacterial and antifungal activity, nutritional value and physicochemical quality of foods can be improved by adding CO-enriched nanoemulsions.
13 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1003-2

Efficacy and absorption of hyaluronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a review

Mason V, Fratter A, Pellizzato M
Osteo-articular diseases affect many elderly people, resulting in worse quality of life and a substantial public health cost. Osteoarthritis, inflammatory articular diseases and conditions associated with cartilage disruption are the most frequently diagnosed. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids and physiotherapy are used to treat affected patients, while some nutraceutical products containing chondroprotective and osteotropic substances have been shown to improve their signs and symptoms. However, the true absorption and efficacy of these substances in humans is largely unknown. The absorption of hyaluronans and chondroitin sulfate is likely negatively affected by their high molecular weight. Nevertheless, many published papers have reported significant improvements in symptoms and articular functionality in patients taking these compounds. This paper attempts to clarify the apparent dichotomy between absorption and efficacy, and compare the clinical evidence for the bioavailability of hyaluronic acid with that of its precursor N-acetyl glucosamine.
12 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1000-2

Development of a double-fractionated Perilla frutescens leaf extract and its possible use in functional dyspepsia

Nannoni G, Mattarocci A, Volterrani G, Alì A, Di Pierro F
Functional dyspepsia (FD), a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by pain or a burning sensation in the epigastrium, postprandial fullness, early satiety, bloating and nausea, used to be treated with prokinetics such as metoclopramide, cisapride and domperidone. Unfortunately, these drugs have severe side effects, including cardiac and sudden death, and consequently are now rarely used or have been withdrawn from the market. However, botanicals could be a source of natural prokinetics which do not have these adverse effects. Perilla frutescens leaf extract is a possible candidate, with some data indicating a clinical role in FD. As with any botanical, perilla extract normally consists of a complex mixture of active ingredients characterized by different chemical and physical properties, including varying degrees of solubility in water and/or alcohol. Consequently, selection of the correct solvents is very important for the preparation of standardized botanical extracts. We have therefore evaluated which solvents, and in which order, should be used. Our findings show that a first extraction step performed in ethanol (80%) followed by a second extraction step using warm water results in standardized quantities of both lipophilic and hydrophilic perilla leaf actives such as rosmarinic acid, vicenin-2, perilla ketone, apigenin, luteolin, and apigenin and luteolin glycosides.
11 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1002-2

Great nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds from Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra

Ninfali P, Antonini E
Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla (BVc, leaf beet) and Beta vulgaris var. rubra (BVr, red beetroot) belong to the Amaranthaceae family and have been used for centuries as food and medicinal plants. The main bioactive phytochemicals of BVr are the betalains, a group of water-soluble pigments derived from betalamic acid, which are divided into two classes: the yellow/orange-coloured betaxanthins (BX) and the red/ violet-coloured betacyanins (BC). The seeds, leaves and roots of BVc are rich in phenolic acids and apigenin-derived flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside (VOR) and vitexina-2-O-xyloside (XVX). We isolated BVc and BVr phytochemicals in our laboratory and tested them individually and in combination for their anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. In cancer cells, vitexin flavonoids were able to induce intrinsic apoptosis, while betalains induced extrinsic apoptosis. Combinations of two or three molecules exhibited synergistic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity, particularly towards hepatic, intestinal and urinary bladder tumours.
10 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1004-2

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and glycometabolic and oxidative status in overweight subjects: an application of skin autofluorescence

Vigna L, Coassin L, Gori F, Ingenito MR, Tomaino L, Agostoni C, Napolitano F, Cighetti G, Bamonti F
Introduction: Overweight and obesity increase the risk of mortality following the onset of several diseases generally characterized by oxidative stress. The levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a consequence of metabolic disorder and oxidative stress, play an important role in the process, and their quantification, based on skin autofluorescence (skin AF), could be used for non-invasive assessment of AGEs. Aim: To evaluate in overweight subjects the diagnostic use of AGE determination (skin AF detected by an AGE Reader) for assessing possible correlation between AGEs and some anthropometric/oxidative indices. Patients and methods: 51 consecutive overweight participants in a nutritional education programme were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study: 39 women (aged 49.69±13.71; BMI 33.12±5.44 kg/m²) and 12 men (aged 56.84±17.84; BMI 33.12±3.11 kg/m²). Glycometabolic and oxidative parameters were measured using routine laboratory analyzers. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant correlations were found between the Cardiovascular Risk Index and age (r=0.65; p<0.0001), AGEs (r=0.41; p<0.0001) and glycosylated haemoglobin (r=0.38; p<0.05); ageing and AGEs (r=0.50; p<0.0001) and glycosylated haemoglobin (r=0.40; p<0.0001); and C-reactive protein and fibrinogen (r=0.52; p<0.0001), homocysteine and fasting glucose (r=0.47; p<0.0001). Discussion: Oxidative stress can be assessed by AGE determination. Our findings in overweight subjects highlight interesting correlations between metabolic-oxidative parameters. Age emerged as the most important indicator of cardiovascular risk and AGE formation. Notably, skin AF, detected by the AGE Reader (a simple non-invasive clinical tool), can be a useful marker for rapid assessment of dysmetabolic-oxidative risk in overweight subjects.
9 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-1005-2

New dietary proteins for cholesterol control: lupin and hempseed

Sirtori CR, Busnelli M
The consumption of dietary proteins from vegetable sources can be very helpful in the dietary management of hypercholesterolemia. While it is well established that soy proteins can reduce LDL-cholesterol, particularly in patients with high cholesterolemia, novel protein sources have lately attracted much interest. Recent studies have clearly established the nutraceutical properties of eggs and egg peptides, which have significant effects on both cholesterolemia and blood pressure. In the last few years, extensive studies have shown that lupin and hempseed proteins have good cholesterol-lowering properties. Lupin, particularly Lupinus angustifolius, is characterized by peptides that can significantly raise LDL-receptor activity and also reduce PCSK9 levels, thus providing very effective treatment for hypercholesterolemic patients when used as substitutes or additives for standard drugs. More recently, hempseed, a protein source rarely evaluated clinically, has been shown to reduce cholesterolemia in animal models, by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity, upregulating LDL receptors and, surprisingly, also increasing PCSK9 levels, with an overall profile similar to that of statins. These novel additions to the nutraceutical armamentarium for treating raised cholesterol may lead to exciting progress in the management of hypercholesterolemic patients.
8 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-0001-2

About curcumin again (and the gut microbiota)

DI Pierro F
In 2017, I wrote an editorial on the possible inefficacy of curcumin [1]. Recently, the possible effect of curcumin on the gut microbiota has been discussed. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with a long history of use as a dietary spice, food-colouring agent and herbal remedy. Curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin’s clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been made to develop curcumin formulations that have greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. Nevertheless, curcumin’s potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability but also on its positive influence on gastrointestinal health, function and structure.
7 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1001-1

Physicochemical and pasting properties of barley/wheat flour blends and the physical, baking and sensory characteristics of cakes

Hamid T, Ahmad M, Masoodi FA, Gani A, Baba U
Background: Since barley possesses various components beneficial to health, replacement of wheat flour with barley flour in bakery products could be an attractive approach. Hence, the objective of this study was to replace wheat flour with barley flour for the preparation of cakes. Materials and methods: Test blends were obtained by incorporating barley flour into wheat flour at 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels of substitution and the physiochemical and pasting properties of the blended flour were studied. The study also investigated the physical, baking and sensory characteristics of the cakes. Results: There was a slight increase in protein content from 8.4% to 9.6% and a reduction in moisture content from 13.57% to 11.27% with increasing levels of barley flour. Pasting properties showed significant differences among the samples, with a slight increase in pasting temperature and significant variations in stirring number. The baking time, symmetry index and volume index of cakes decreased with increased barley flour content, but there was no change in organoleptic properties. Conclusion: Wheat flour can be replaced with up to 50% barley flour with little decline in the quality parameters of cakes.
6 Gennaio 2018
DOI: DOI 10.17470/NF-017-1017-1

Technological and quality parameters of reduced-calorie chocolates: a review

Nazir S, Azad ZRAA
The preference for healthier and convenience food products has resulted in a demand for reducedcalorie chocolate which has 20% fewer calories than conventional chocolate but the same brightness, aroma, flavour and hue. The fat replacers used in reduced-calorie chocolate are usually derived from vegetable oils and/or polysaccharides. The vegetable oils include palm oil, corn oil and soybean oil, while the polysaccharides include carrageenan, guar gum and locust bean gum. Gums are considered healthier than vegetable oils but result in a weaker texture. Therefore, vegetable oils are often used in combination with gums to improve the rheological characteristics of reduced-calorie chocolate. Sucrose substitutes include sugar alcohols, dietary fibres, syrups and natural/artificial sweeteners. Sucralose is by far the preferred artificial sweetener because of its stability at higher temperatures. The incorporation of fat and sugar replacers increases the viscosity and slipperiness of reduced-calorie chocolate. Also, reduced-calorie chocolate is more bitter and less sweet than conventional chocolate.
5 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1003-1

Assessment of nutritional risk factors predisposing to autism among Saudi children

Hammouda SAI, Al Areefy AAEH, Al-Thbiany A, Farghal S, Al-Harbi G, Abduallah M, Al-Rehaly R, Al-JohaniG
Introduction: Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition of unknown aetiology which is usually diagnosed in the first 3 years of life. Several studies have linked reduced intake of some nutrients with autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objective: To identify nutritional risk factors that predispose to autism among preschool and school children living in Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah city in Saudi Arabia. Method: Thirty children with autism/ASD aged 2–12 years and 36 matched control children were compared regarding BMI and food intake, using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Both groups consumed similar amounts of carbohydrates, protein and other nutrients, many of which were below the international recommendations for children of their age. However, children with autism/ASD also consumed significantly less omega-3 and iron than the control group. Conclusions: Children with ASD, like other children in Saudi Arabia, consume less than the recommended amounts of some nutrients. Autistic children have reduced intake of omega-3 and iron, together with limited intake of many food varieties which could be linked to autism in susceptible children.
4 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1011-1

Can nutrition education improve nutritional status in pregnant women?

Mohajeri M, Barzegar A, Nemati A, Rafati P
Background: Nutrition during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and the health and development of the fetus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nutrition education program on the diet of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 120 pregnant women (intervention group: 62, control group: 58) attending our centre at 16–35 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in our study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, job, age, medication use and educational level, and food records were collected weekly. Three similar educational sessions were held each week for 12 weeks. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16). Results: There were significant improvements in diet diversity (p=0.0001) and nutrient intake (p≤0.05) in the intervention group after the educational program. Conclusion: Nutrition education can improve the diet of pregnant women.
3 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1009-1

Vitamin bioavailability, diet and prandial status: good tips for great results

Mason V, Fratter A, Pellizzato M
Vitamins are key to human health. Although vitamins are involved in several metabolic pathways, humans cannot biosynthesize them except for vitamin D and vitamin B3, so adequate intake in the diet is crucial. Vitamins are classified as fat-soluble or water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K, while water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B and C. Avitaminosis due to imbalanced nutrition, disease or genetic impairment leads to disease, but consumption of vitamin supplements or fortified foods can counteract vitamin deficiency. However, their absorption depends on the type of meal and food matrix composition. Vitamins A, D and E are mainly influenced by lipid content which promotes intestinal uptake. Surprisingly, the fat-soluble vitamin K seems to be unaffected by type of diet, although it has better bioavailability as a food supplement. Water-soluble vitamin absorption is not significantly affected by prandial status or dietary composition. No data are reported for vitamin C, while the vitamin B group needs evaluation by coenzyme.
2 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1018-1

The use of high-dose omega-3 fatty acids in the management of cardiovascular disease

Sears B
High-dose omega-3 fatty acids rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can have significant benefits in the management of cardiovascular disease due to their formation of specialized hormones known as resolvins. The appropriate dose can be determined by the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to EPA in the blood. This review will summarize the recent data on reducing the AA/EPA ratio and its effects on cardiovascular outcomes.
1 Gennaio 2018
DOI: 10.17470/NF-018-0001-1

Impact of berberine on human gut bacteria

Di Pierro F
A recently published paper in Nature [1] stated that 27% of 835 non-antimicrobial drugs have a significative impact on gut microbiota. It is likely that a similar or greater proportion of botanicals have comparable effects. For instance, we know that curcumin increases the abundance of butyrateproducing bacteria and faecal butyrate level [2]. This could explain why, despite its very poor oral bioavailability, curcumin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and why it is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Berberine is another excellent example of a botanical which acts by modulating the microbiota. Knowledge of the mechanism by which berberine modulates the microbiota could lead to better understanding of the role of berberine in metabolic diseases.
30 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1017-1

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of mahua (Madhuca longifolia) flowers and fruit

Singh V, Mishra S, Singh J, Ray A.K.
Infectious diseases remain a major health challenge and are becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A novel approach is to exploit human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are now known to reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases among breastfed infants. HMOs have bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against a wide range of important pathogens, such as Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridioides difficile, Entamoeba histolytica and Candida albicans. Furthermore, HMOs can act synergistically with antibiotics, reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration for certain antibiotics by up to 32-fold. This could extend the therapeutic window of some antibiotics and also reduce the doses required to treat infectious diseases. Given the risk posed by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, it would be advantageous to further exploit this synergism between antibiotics and HMOs.
21 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1010-4

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction of phycocyanin and phenolics from Arthospira platensis var. ‘lonor’ biomass

Mazumder A, Prabuthas P, Mishra HN
This study describes the enhanced and simultaneous extraction of phycocyanin and phenolics from Arthospira platensis biomass. Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was investigated to determine its efficacy regarding phycocyanin and phenolics yield. An optimization experiment using response surface methodology revealed that the variables ethanol concentration (20%–95%, v/v), extraction temperature (15°C–65°C), sonicator amplitude (20%–100%) and extraction time (60–300 s) have a significant effect on phycocyanin and phenolics yield. The maximum yield of phycocyanin (29.9 mg/g) and total phenolics (2.4 mg/g) was predicted to occur at 40% ethanol concentration, 34.9°C extraction temperature, sonicator amplitude of 95% and extraction time of 104.7 s. The resultant extract exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant response with an IC50 value of 85.75 μg/ml. This extract can be incorporated into functional foods as the extracting solvents ethanol and water have GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status.
20 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1028-4

Characterization and analysis of dhokla with incorporated tomato powder

Ray S, Saha R, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R
Dhokla is easy to cook and very popular as a snack. Tomato is an excellent fortification ingredient for food products due to its nutritional properties, high antioxidant activity and good sensory characteristics. In this study, dhokla was fortified with 1%, 4% and 7% tomato powder and analyzed on the day of preparation and after storage. Acidity increased from 0.09 to 0.45 following tomato powder incorporation. The correlation coefficient (R2) demonstrated that antioxidant content is strongly associated with antioxidant activity. Rheological characteristics suggested that dhokla batter has viscoelastic properties. The moisture content of dhokla decreased from 16.928 to 15.10, from 18.05 to 17.45 and from 20.10 to 18.03 at the three levels of fortification after storage. Nutritional values were highest when dhokla was fortified with 7% tomato powder. Sensory analysis showed that dhokla containing 4% tomato powder has the best overall acceptability.
19 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1015-4

Determination of steviol glycosides in seven Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extracts routinely used in the food and confectionary industry

Bastone A, Rossi A, Bagnati R, Passoni A, Salmona M, Diomede L
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extracts are used as natural non-nutritive sweeteners in several countries worldwide. The principal components of stevia leaf extracts are stevioside and rebaudioside A. Stevioside has about 300 times the sweetening power of sucrose, but is the main cause of the bitter aftertaste of crude stevia extracts. Rebaudioside A has greater sweetening power and a less pronounced bitter aftertaste, and so is usually the preferred component. The overall taste of the sweetener depends on the composition of the stevia extract used and the steviol glycosides present. To characterize the unique taste profile of stevia sweeteners, we analyzed stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B and isosteviol content in seven different commercial food-grade extracts used as raw material. A sensitive method, using HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, was applied. The amount of steviol glycoside in the seven different extracts varied. As expected, rebaudioside A was the most abundant, ranging from 497 to 1,000 mg/g. One sample contained only rebaudioside A. Rebaudioside B and stevioside levels ranged from negligible to 40% of the total glycosides determined, with concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 386 mg/g of raw material. The concentration of isosteviol was below the limit of detection in all samples. These data can help in the selection of the most suitable commercial extracts for use as sweeteners in food, beverages and confectionery.
18 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1012-4

Hair loss in older women: supplement to increase scalp hair thickness and reduce hair loss

Mastropietro F, Corasaniti N, Piacentini M, Celleno L
Hair loss and thinning hair are serious problems affecting a large number of women, especially during the menopause. A food supplement containing fermented soy, ornithine, arginine and Tricovel® Tricoage45+ with Bioequolo (Giuliani SpA, Milan, Italy), formulated to promote hair growth in women over the age of 45, was used in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in healthy adult females going through the menopause. Subjects with hair loss and less than 80% of their hair in the anagen phase were randomized to receive a single daily dose of the study product or placebo. Wash test results showed that hair loss was significantly reduced after the first 8 weeks of treatment with the study product. Hair pull test results also showed significant improvements (fewer hairs removed) in subjects treated with the study product vs. placebo after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, analysis of microscope images revealed a statistically significant increase in the conversion of vellus hair into terminal hair after 12 weeks of treatment with the study product compared with placebo. Self-evaluation by the subjects confirmed these improvements. This study shows that the dietary supplement can decrease hair loss and promote hair growth in women over 45 years of age.
17 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1004-4

Dysglycaemia, diagnosis and treatment

Derosa G, Maffioli P
Euglycaemia is characterized by fasting plasma glucose levels of 70–100 mg/dl, while dysglycaemia is characterized by fasting plasma glucose levels of ≥100 mg/dl. The term dysglycaemia covers three conditions: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired carbohydrate tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The identification and classification of dysglycaemia and ways to treat it in order to prevent complications are discussed.
16 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1025-4

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-gastric cancer activity of Syzygium alternifolium fruits

Babu TMC, Bhaskar BV, Devi S, Rajendra W
Syzygium alternifolium (SA) is a plant widely used in folk medicine. The current study was carried out to characterize the anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and anti-gastric cancer activity of S. alternifolium fruit extracts. S. alternifolium total phenolics (SATP) and S. alternifolium aqueous extract (SAAE) were used to examine anti-H. pylori and H. pylori urease inhibitory activity. The anti-gastric cancer activity of these extracts was also evaluated using an MTT cell viability assay followed by cell cycle progression analysis. The in vitro results showed that both extracts have dose-dependent anti-H. pylori and anti-gastric cancer activity. SATP has significant anti-H. pylori activity against the Hp26695 and HpP12 strains with MIC50 values of 148±20 and 141±30 μg/ml, respectively, while SAAE has moderate activity compared to the antibiotic amoxicillin. SATP showed significant urease activity with an IC50 of 98±6.4 μg/ml, while SAAE showed a moderate effect compared with positive control. Moreover, SATP showed significant inhibition of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell growth by inhibiting the G2/M phase of the cell cycle with an IC50 of 77.9±0.2 μg/ml, while SAAE exhibited moderate inhibition compared with normal control. Reverse phase UV-HPLC analysis indicated the presence of the phenolic compounds cinnamic, gallic, ferulic and vanillic acid in these extracts. The results suggest that SATP and SAAE extracted from S. alternifolium have significant anti-H. pylori and anti-gastric cancer activity and offer protection against gastritis. Hence, these extracts are recommended for patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
15 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-0001-4

Bacterial therapy to help eradicate Helicobacter pylori and to reduce the gastrointestinal side effects of antibiotics: a possible treatment scheme?

Di Pierro F
Helicobacter pylori (Fig. 1), previously called Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach. It was identified in 1982 by two Australian who found it in a patient with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers, conditions not previously thought to have a bacterial aetiology. H. pylori is also linked to the development of duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer. It is present in the stomach of 50% of the world’s population and asymptomatic in over 80% of those infected. The standard first-line therapy to eradicate H. pylori, is the so-called triple therapy consisting of proton pump inhibitors (PPI), mainly omeprazole, along with the antibiotics clarithromycin and amoxicillin. Variations on the triple therapy have been developed over the years, using a different PPI, or replacing amoxicillin with metronidazole for those with an allergy to penicillin. Due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, an additional round of antibiotic therapy, the quadruple therapy, consisting of a PPI, a bismuth colloid, metronidazole and tetracyclines, has been developed.
14 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1002-3

Effect of sprouting on barley flour and cookie quality of wheat–barley flour blends

Yaqoob S, Baba WN, Masoodi FA, Bazaz R, Shafi M
Different proportions of raw and sprouted barley flour were separately blended with wheat flour and the mixtures analyzed for their physicochemical and pasting properties. Blending with barley flour resulted in an increase in protein, fat and ash content. An increase in barley fraction significantly decreased the bulk, true density and colour (L* and b* values) of blends, while the angle of repose increased significantly. Incorporation of sprouted barley flour compared with raw barley flour led to a greater percentage change in the parameters studied: peak viscosity and setback increased, while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. Blending of wheat flour with sprouted barley flour in comparison with raw barley flour showed lower increases in peak viscosity and setback values. Flour blends were then used for the production of cookies that were analyzed for their physicochemical, textural and sensory attributes. Cookies containing raw barley flour had a higher spread ratio than cookies made from sprouted barley flour blends. Blending with barley decreased the L* value of cookies, with incorporation of sprouted barley showing a smaller decrease in L* value than raw barley. Hence, incorporation of sprouted barley resulted in flour blends with improved pasting properties and better quality gluten-free cookies.
13 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1007-3

Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) ‘milk’ reverses acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in a murine model

Onuoha NO, Ogbusua NO, Uwaezuoke NJ, Ejike CECC
The usefulness of tigernut milk (TNM) in reversing acetaminophen-induced liver injury was investigated. Twenty-five rats were randomized into five equal groups. Four groups were challenged on day 0 with 2500 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) acetaminophen. Subsequently, from days 1 to 7, they were treated with 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 kg/mg bw TNM, respectively, per os. The fifth group served as the normal control group. On the 8th day, the rats were sacrificed humanely and biochemical markers of toxicity and oxidative stress were determined in their sera. TNM at the tested concentrations significantly reversed liver injury as shown by liver function markers. For example, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations decreased dose-dependently and significantly (p<0.001) from 298.9±32.3 in the negative control group to 159.3±22.1 in the 2000 mg/kg bw TNM group. In fact, the serum ALP concentrations of all test rats were statistically similar (p>0.001) to those of the normal control rats. These biochemical data are corroborated by histological findings. Superoxide dismutase activity (U/mg protein) was increased significantly (p<0.001) from 108.0±7.4 in the negative control group to 283.9±20.5 in the 500 mg/kg bw TNM group, and indeed in all test groups. Malondialdehyde concentrations in the test rats suggest less efficient clearance of the break-down products of lipid peroxidation. Phytochemicals in the TNM may have acted directly as antioxidants, or induced the synthesis of glutathione (which exerts downstream positive effects on antioxidant systems), thereby aiding recovery from drug-induced liver damage.
12 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1005-3

Preservation of cashew apple juice using Aloe vera and hydroxychavicol

Talasila U, Beebi SK, Vechalapu RR
Cashew apples are very nutritious and could be used the health, medicine and industry sectors if the high perishability and short shelf-life of the fruit and juice could be improved. Thus, the preservation of cashew apple juice for use in various applications is an important issue for food technologists. In this study, Aloe vera juice, hydroxychavicol and/or sterile filtration were employed to prolong the shelf-life of cashew apple juice. Juice quality (sensory, physicochemical and microbiological) was analysed after 15 days. The results showed that juice which underwent sterile filtration and was then preserved with hydroxychavicol was stable with preserved nutrient quality and medicinal properties for 45 days.
11 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1006-3

The soothing effect of menthol, eucalyptol and high-intensity cooling agents

Diomede L, Salmona M
Several compounds are commonly used as flavours in foods such as chewing gum and candy to generate a pleasant cool sensation which can have a soothing effect on the upper respiratory tract. Menthol and eucalyptol are the flavours most widely used as cooling agents and their effect is supported by scientific data. The cool sensory perception they induce is due to their ability to activate cold receptors, particularly the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), found in the skin and oral cavity. The ability to activate cold receptors has been also shown for non-volatile and non-menthol coolants developed since the 1970s, assessed as Generally Recognized as Safe and approved for use in food by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States. Among these coolants, ethyl 3-(p-menthane-3-carboxamido)acetate, its analogue N-[[5-methyl-2-(1- methylethyl)cyclohexyl]carbonyl]glycine propyl ester and N-ethyl-p-menthane-3-carboxamide have demonstrated a greater cooling effect than menthol and are defined as ‘high-intensity cooling agents’. Studies in human volunteers who consumed flavoured chewing gum found that the flavour intensity of menthol or eucalyptol, and consequently their cooling effect, increases with chewing and that volatile flavour compounds in the oral cavity are forced into air exhaled through the nasal compartment. It was thus confirmed that the soothing effect and increased air flow perceived in the nose and throat are sensations and not pharmacological actions.
10 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1008-3

Myoinositol: mechanisms of action and role in the treatment of metabolic diseases, infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome

Menichini D, Facchinetti F
Inositols are natural compounds present in animal and plant cells and play a key role in glucose metabolism, acting as second messengers of insulin. They have been shown to be able to counteract the downstream consequences of insulin resistance, exerting beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We summarize the mechanisms of action of inositol compounds, focusing on the most important functions of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, hyperlidaemia, insulin resistance and PCOS.
9 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1016-3

Metabolic disorders and cancer: is there a role for nutraceuticals?

Cazzaniga M
Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal excess accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is recognized as a real organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions, and have a close relationship with oncological risk. The relationship between obesity and carcinogenesis is complex and not fully understood. However, obesity is frequently associated with several pathological states such as chronic inflammation, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (generally defined as metabolic disorders) which contribute to the increased risk of cancer in the overweight population. Current data show that metabolic disorders are often reversible with prompt therapeutic intervention, so these conditions and related carcinogenetic pathways should be managed for cancer prevention and therapy. Metformin and statins have demonstrated their ability to interfere with tumour processes but unfortunately also produce side effects, making long-term and preventative use difficult. Some nutraceutical compounds seem to be ideal for providing similar activity and effectiveness as these agents but with minor or absent side effects. This review examines the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders, their relationship with cancer and the possibility of interfering with associated processes with some promising nutraceuticals used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional therapies.
8 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-0001-3

New findings suggest selenium supplementation to reduce the risks of PROM in pregnancy: a new overview concerning supplementation during pregnancy

Di Pierro F
New analysis published in the New England Journal of Medicine [1] has identified six genomic regions conferring risk of premature delivery following preterm rupture of membranes (PROM), which is a major health problem worldwide. The information obtained may be useful in implementing new preventive strategies, some of which are simple and inexpensive, such as the use of selenium dietary supplements. The study conducted at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Center (USA) as part of an international collaboration identified six genomic regions that affect the duration of pregnancy and time of delivery. The study, which involved more than 50,000 women, could have important consequences for the prevention of premature births and related complications. Premature births (those that occur before the 37th week of pregnancy) are an important public health problem globally: it is estimated that premature birth is the main cause of death among children under the age of five [2, 3].
7 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1032-2

Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) and their effect on the oxidative stability of ghee

Singha AK, Kumara V, Singh K
Antioxidants were extracted from oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) using the solvents water, ethanol, methanol, acetone and diethyl ether. Although a higher extract yield was obtained with water, in general higher total phenolic and flavonoid content and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using ethanol. The antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract of oregano leaves in ghee during storage and frying was evaluated in comparison with the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Three quality parameters, namely peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) content and p-anisidine value (PAV), of ghee were analyzed. The PV, FFA content and PAV of control ghee samples increased significantly during storage and frying as compared to the ghee samples containing oregano extract (OGE), BHA or BHT. The frying period had a greater effect on changes in PV, FFA content and PAV of ghee than the storage period. Ghee samples with added 1.0% (w/w) OGE showed the least increase in PV, FFA content and PAV, which was comparable with samples with added 0.02% (w/w) BHA and BHT. The study revealed that oregano leaves could be a good natural source of antioxidants and can be used in ghee to retard oxidative deterioration during storage and frying.
6 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1021-2

Microencapsulated supercritical carbon dioxide extract of small cardamom enriches the nutraceutical value of custard

Dutta S, Bhattacharjee P
The spray dried α-amylase-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extract of small cardamom (rich in 1,8-cineole) was used for the fortification of custard to obtain a new designer nutraceutical custard. The encapsulate was employed at concentrations of 4%, 4.5% and 5% (w/w) to formulate the custards. Custard formulated with 4.5% of encapsulate was most preferred by the sensory panel. This custard sample showed a more stable texture, higher phytochemical properties and lower microbial load than the control sample (formulated without encapsulate). This is the first study on the formulation of a new designer nutraceutical custard by fortification with encapsulated SC-CO2 extract of small cardamom. The processes described here can safely be employed in the development of other nutraceutical or functional foods, which inevitably involves the loss of the phytochemicals of food constituents during manufacture.
5 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1018-2

Comparative study of colour, pasting and antioxidant properties of different wheat cultivars as affected by toasting and roasting

Puniaa S, Sandhua KS, Sharmab S
Wheat has been reported to contain a variety of bioactive compounds which have health benefits. The bioactive compounds, however, are affected by the different processing conditions applied to wheat flour during the manufacture of different products. Milled wheat is used to produce a variety of baked products, but the effect of toasting and roasting before milling has not been examined. Therefore, the effects of mild (toasting) and strong (roasting) heat treatments on the Hunter Lab colour, pasting and antioxidant properties of flours from commercially important wheat cultivars grown in India were investigated. Antioxidant properties including total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), metal chelating activity (MCA) and ABTS+ scavenging activity were studied. Both heat treatments resulted in a reduction in bulk density (BD) and Hunter L* values. However, Hunter a* and b* values were increased. The AOA, MCA and ABTS+ scavenging activity of flours increased after both treatments, while TFC was decreased and TPC was increased after toasting but decreased after roasting. All pasting parameters except pasting temperature increased with toasting but decreased after roasting. Flour from cv.WHD-943 showed the highest AOA, TPC and ABTS+ scavenging activity both before and after the two heat treatments.
4 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1016-2

Association of dietary calcium with blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women

Mohajeri M, Nemati A, Hazrati S, Iranpour F
Objective: To investigate the association of dietary calcium with blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women. Design: This study used data collected from healthcare centres in Ardebil for 137 pregnant women aged 30–35 years. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using a single 24-hour food recall and Nutritionist IV software. Height and weight were measured after overnight fasting with all participants wearing light gowns. Blood pressure measurements were taken in the sitting position after a resting period of at least 5 min. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with weight gain and blood pressure. Results: Mean±SD systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 150.19±50.45 and 70.18±11.16 mmHg, respectively. Mean±SD calcium intake was 784.59±33.36 mg/day. There was a significant association between dietary calcium intake and diastolic blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women (p≤0.05). However, the association between dietary calcium intake and systolic blood pressure and weight was not significant (p≥0.05). Conclusion: Dietary calcium intake can affect blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women.
3 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1013-2

Rational approach to sequential optimization of antioxidative whey protein hydrolysate production

Devi K, Haripriya S, Kumar JKN, Dharini V, Kumar V
A two-step method for sequential optimization was designed based on the role of hydrolytic factors in the preparation of antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPH). In the first step, the rates of reaction- related variables such as pH, temperature and the enzyme/substrate (E/s) ratio (w/w) were optimized to 1.5, 37°C and 1:100 for pepsin, 8, 42°C and 1:100 for trypsin, and 7.8, 37°C and 1:50 for pancreatin, respectively, with maximum degrees of hydrolysis of 4.5%, 14% and 15.2%, respectively. In the second step, hydrolysis was performed at the optimum conditions determined in the first step. The optimum hydrolysis times were 1.5 h for pepsin and 2 h each for trypsin and pancreatin based on their maximum reducing powers of 0.31, 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. In sequential hydrolysis, the optimized pepsin hydrolysates with subsequent action of trypsin and pancreatin individually were optimized at their respective E/s ratios of 1:50 and 1:100 (w/w) based on their respective degrees of hydrolysis of 13.6% and 14.8%, while the optimum hydrolysis times were 4.5 h and 2.5 h for reducing powers of 0.66 and 0.75, respectively. This study indicates that sequential optimization for the production of antioxidative WPH could be better than the traditional one factor at a time (OFAT) method.
2 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1033-2

Nutraceuticals in cardio-metabolic therapy

Derosa G, Maffioli P
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world and the leading cause of death, hospitalization and disability among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this paper is to discuss which nutraceuticals could be helpful in controlling factors contributing to high cardiovascular risk, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
1 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-0001-1

Bifidobacterium longum W11: an antibiotic-resistant probiotic

Di Pierro F
Possible unwanted consequences of antibiotic use include: (a) the selection of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria; (b) increased susceptibility of the host to new infections; (c) gram-negative bacterial overgrowth; (d) diarrhoea; and (e) Clostridium difficile colonization [1]. Theoretically, except for antibiotic resistance, all these effects could be alleviated with probiotics. However, even a small delay between antibiotic administration and supplementation with probiotics severely reduces the positive impact of the probiotics as they are unable to integrate into the gut microbiota. The high sensitivity of probiotics to antibiotics prevents stable colonization of the gut, thus ensuring only non-significant and transient effects. However, the use of antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be beneficial. Of course, for safety reasons, this resistance must not be transferable and must not be located in plasmid DNA as probiotics could otherwise be responsible for dangerous horizontal gene transfer (Fig. 1) to pathogens [2]. Antibiotic-resistant probiotics sound very attractive, even tempting pharmaceutical companies to falsely claim some probiotic strains have antibiotic-resistant properties.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1020-4

Impact of a fibre and herbal extract nutritional supplement programme on individual quality of life

Matravers P, Bianchini R, Steely N, Likimani T A
Overweight and obesity are common conditions in developed countries and are associated with adverse effects on health and quality of life (QoL). Nutritional supplements are known to assist in efforts to achieve and maintain a healthy weight and improve QoL. In this study we evaluated the effects of a programme of nutritional supplements consisting of a supplement containing glucomannan (a water-soluble dietary fibre), magnesium and saffron (Arbonne Evolution Full Control, Watermelon Kiwi Flavor Supplement Powder) and a herbal supplement containing Svetol® green coffee extract, green tea extract, natural caffeine and quercetin (Arbonne Evolution Thermobooster Supplement Tablet) combined with a calorie-controlled diet, adequate protein intake and moderate exercise. Adult subjects (n=77) who were overweight or obese were tested for QoL improvement using a validated questionnaire (SF-36). After 16 weeks, the subjects completing the study (n=66; 86%) reported improvements in general health (97.0% responded positively to a question assessing current general health compared with 69.7% at baseline, while 60.7% responded positively to a question assessing improvement in health during the past year compared with 21.2% at baseline). An improvement was also seen with regard to energy (83.3% responded positively to a question assessing current energy level at week 16 compared with 68.2% at baseline). Improvements were seen in seven of eight subscales of the SF-36. The supplement programme was well tolerated and well accepted by users. Statistically significant improvements versus baseline in body composition parameters, including weight, were observed at some intermediate time points. A statistically significant improvement in waist/hip ratio (–2.0%) was observed at week 16. This combination of nutritional supplements is well accepted by consumers and may help to improve QoL when used as part of an ongoing programme to maintain a healthy weight.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1005-4

Changes in bioactive compounds, quality attributes and rheological behaviour of black grape juice caused by microwave and conventional heating

Mirzaee S, Askari G R, Emam-Djomeh Z, Garavand F
In this study, black grape juice containing different concentrations of soluble solids (15, 20, 30 and 40°Brix) obtained by microwave or conventional heating at different operational pressures (12, 38.5 and 100 kPa) was investigated for bioactive compounds, quality attributes and rheological behaviour. The more concentrated the juice, the higher the anthocyanin and phenolic compound degradation, which in turn resulted in decreased antioxidant potential. All Hunter colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) decreased with juice concentration. Microwave heating showed better performance compared to conventional thermal heating in terms of colour retention, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and the antioxidant activity of the juice concentrate. Samples processed at lower operational pressures showed a slighter decrease in quality attributes regardless of the heating method used. The results indicate that the use of a higher microwave power (600 W instead of 450 W) at an evaporation pressure of 38.5 kPa resulted in better preservation of quality characteristics against thermal destruction. The juice concentrates obeyed Newton’s law and the heating method did not influence rheological behaviour.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1007-4

In vitro and in vivo antidiabetic effects of the ethanol extract from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake)

Takashima A, Sano K, Nakagawa S, Toshima G, Takahashi J, Kurosaki F, Sasaki A, Hiwatashi K, Hata K
We examined the expression patterns of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells that spontaneously or chemically differentiated into intestinal epithelial cells. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of intestinal glucose transporters such as GLUT-1 and -2 was increased by both types of differentiation. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of extracts from Lentinula edodes on glucose transport in intestinal Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by 5 mM sodium butyrate. The ethanol extract of L. edodes (LEE) at 0.1 mg/ml markedly inhibited glucose intake through the monolayer of differentiated Caco-2 cells; however, neither water nor the 50% (v/v) ethanol extract affected glucose transport through these cells at the same concentration. We also investigated the effects of LEE on plasma glucose levels in mice with hyperglycaemia induced by feeding with a high fat diet (HFD). The results obtained showed that LEE reduced plasma glucose levels by 64.0% in HFD-fed mice.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1041-4

Inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and oxidative stress by some common apple varieties

Oboh G, Omojokun O S, Oyeleye S I, Akinyemi A J
In recent times, the consumption of apples has been encouraged for the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, but biochemical evidence to support this practice is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation potential as well as the total phenol and flavonoid contents of aqueous extracts of the apple varieties Malus sylvestris (green apple), Malus pumila (red apple) and Syzygium samarangense (wax apple). The results showed that all apple varieties inhibited α-amylase (IC50=12.66–16.98 µg/ml) and α-glucosidase (13.55–16.23 µg/ml) in a dosedependent manner, with green apple showing the highest inhibitory activity while wax apple had the least. Similarly, all apple varieties showed dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50=222.92–278.71 µg/ml) with green apple also showing the highest scavenging activity while wax apple showed the least. Furthermore, the aqueous extracts of the apple varieties dosedependently inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas (38.60–53.57 µg/ml), with wax apple exhibiting the highest inhibitory potential. Also, the total phenol content of the apple varieties ranged from 16.14 to 17.45 mg GAE/100 g, while the flavonoid content ranged from 4.17 to 5.56 mg QUE/100 g, with green apple having the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The biological activities exhibited by the apple varieties could be attributed to the presence of biologically active photochemicals. Furthermore, the apple variety (green apple) with the highest phenolic content showed the best overall activity, indicating the potent role of phenolic compounds in the management of diabetes, thereby providing biochemical support for the use of apples as a functional food in diabetes management.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1003-4

Liquorice flavonoid oil increased skeletal muscle thickness as assessed by ultrasound in training football athletes

Myojina C, Matsuda Y, Tokimoto M, Matsunami T, Kawanishi M, Kakimoto S, Nakagawa K
Liquorice flavonoid oil (LFO) consisting of liquorice hydrophobic polyphenols in medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) is a new functional food ingredient effective for preventing metabolic syndrome. As it has been recently shown that LFO significantly increased skeletal muscle mass in mice, we hypothesized that it would also increase skeletal muscle mass in humans. Therefore, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with male football athletes who ingested 300 mg per day of LFO concentrate solution for 8 weeks during the course of training at Kindai University, Osaka. Ultrasound imaging analysis revealed that the muscle thickness of the anterior thighs and anterior brachial regions in the LFO group were both significantly increased by 2.5% at week 8 in comparison to baseline, but not in the placebo group. In addition, although abdominal muscle thickness significantly increased in both the LFO and the placebo groups at week 8 in comparison to baseline, the increase in the LFO group was 1.8 times greater than that in the placebo group (p<0.05). Interestingly, stratified analysis by two team positions revealed that the offensive backs group, who require speed, gained more anterior thigh muscle, while the defensive line group, who require pushing force, gained more anterior branchial muscle with repeated intake of LFO. These results correlate well with the position-specific training of the two groups. This study indicates that LFO can contribute as a dietary supplement ingredient to increase or maintain skeletal muscle mass in humans in combination with exercise. This is the first report showing that LFO, which consists of liquorice polyphenols, increases muscle mass in humans.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1001-4

Enhancement of calcium absorption and bone health by fermented soybean

Puria A, Mirb S R, Kulkarnic B, Pandaa B P
The effects of metabolites produced during soy fermentation on calcium absorption and maintaining bone health have been studied in the mice model by measuring serum calcium and phosphorus levels, bone mineral density (BMD) and arterial calcification. The nutritional composition of different experimental diets was determined. Both bone mineral content (BMC) and the cross-sectional area of the shaft of the femur were significantly (p<0.01) increased and had a much greater effect on BMD when mice were treated with experimental diet D3 (dehulled soybean fermented with Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2756) and diet D4 (dehulled soybean fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and B. subtilis MTCC 2756) as compared to diet D1 (unfermented dehulled soybean). The group of mice treated with experimental diets D3 and D4 did not show calcium deposition in the arterial wall. The beneficial effects may be due to aglycone isoflavones as well as a higher amount of vitamin K2 in experimental diets D3 and D4.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1010-4

Altered gender-related homocysteine metabolism and lipid panel in healthy heavy smokers: a possible role for nutraceutical supplementation

Vigna L, Fenoglio C, Bamonti F, Novembrino C, De Giuseppe R, Dellanoce C, Coassin L, Cighetti G, Maiavacca R, Gregori D
In recent years, clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested that increased concentrations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) could be an additional independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1]. It has been established that a very high tHcy concentration due to inborn metabolic errors causing enzyme alterations in homocysteine metabolism can lead to serious thrombotic events at a young age [2]. Mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is recognized as a potential risk factor for adult cardiovascular disease, and many observational studies, and case and placebo-controlled trials, are seeking to determine whether it is a cause or an effect of the disease [3]. Hyperhomocysteinemia can be caused by genetic and/ or acquired factors due to lifestyle (i.e., nutritional habits), renal insufficiency and age [3]. It is known that low levels or deficiency in our diet of some group B vitamins, in particular cobalamin and/or folate (required cofactors for further homocysteine metabolism through the remethylation pathway), result in moderate elevations in tHcy levels.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-4

Did cranberry fail to show its ability to protect against recurrent urinary tract infections?

Di Pierro F
On 27 October 2016, one of the most prestigious medical journals in the world, JAMA, published a negative double-blind and placebo controlled clinical study conducted by researchers from Yale (USA) in which a highly standardized, proanthocyanidin- A (PAC-A)-containing cranberry extract was used [1]. According to the conclusion of the trial: ‘Among older women residing in nursing homes, administration of cranberry capsules vs placebo resulted in no significant difference in presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 year’. An editorial by LE Nicolle in the same issue of JAMA flatly condemns the use of cranberry PACs to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and calls on healthcare providers to stop using cranberry and switch back to antibiotics [2].
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1009-3

Probiotics and immune modulation: reducing risk for cold and flu

Lehtoranta L, Lehtinen M, Ouwehand A C
The common cold and flu are very common human diseases affecting all age groups. There are no cures for the common cold which is caused by over 200 viruses, although vaccines against influenza viruses are available. The potential beneficial effects of probiotics for the common cold have been widely studied. Meta-analyses show that probiotics have general benefits, with some strains performing better than others. This review focuses on the effects of probiotics on the common cold and flu. We discuss the aetiology of and immune responses to cold viruses and the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics. In addition, we review specific clinical studies investigating probiotic efficacy in respiratory infections in children and adults. We also discuss whether probiotic consumption for reducing risk of colds and flu could result in cost savings for society.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1039-3

Can nutrition education in primary school students affect dietary habits?

Mohajeri M, Sepahi S, Nemati A, Iranpour F
Objective: To investigate the impact of school nutrition education on children’s dietary habits in Ardabil, Iran. Design: A 12-week intervention with nutrition education was conducted in three primary schools in Ardabil. A total of 600 female students in grades 4 and 5 (10–12 years old) were enrolled in the study and divided into an intervention group and a control group. Dietary data were recorded in a food diary and the amount of different types of food consumed was noted. Data were analysed using independent and paired t-tests, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The children in the intervention group reported significantly (p≤0.05) increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products following education: the mean±SD number of servings of fruit and vegetables after education was 3.2±0.02 and 1.02±0.03, respectively,i n the intervention group. The consumption of chips and sugar-sweetened drinks was significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in intervention group children, while the consumption of oily seeds was significantly (p=0.042) increased. There was a significant difference in the diet diversity score of the intervention group (p=0.032) which had a mean±SD diet diversity score of 5±0.06 groups/day. Nutrition education can affect dietary habits, such as the consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products, and can improve diet diversity in school students.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1038-3

High inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation by Hammada elegans phenolic extracts

Djokhdem K, Djeridane A, Renane N, Yousfi M
The antioxidant activity and phenolic content of extracts and solvent–solvent partition fractions from the aerial parts of three medicinal plants were evaluated. Aerial parts of Hammada elegans, Plantago ciliata and Thymelaea microphylla were extracted using the polarity gradients of different solvents. The samples were extracted by liquid– liquid partition with different organic solvents to obtain 16 fractions. Next, the phenolic contents of all fractions were analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their inhibition of the peroxidation of linoleic acid and sunflower oil was evaluated by the lipid peroxide ammonium thiocyanate method. The total phenolic content of the different Hammada elegans fractions varied from 0.045 to 0.0714 mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The percentage inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid and sunflower oil was found to be higher in methanolic fractions and was comparable to that of α-tocopherol, Trolox, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). In this study, a direct relationship between total phenolic content and inhibition of lipid peroxidation was observed. This indicates that phenolics are the main contributors to the observed antioxidant activities of the different plant extracts. These results indicate that the level of antioxidant activity in these plants varies greatly. They also suggest that the phenolics in these plants provide a substantial amount of antioxidants. Additional research may reveal further benefits of these medicinal plants. The flora of Algeria appears to be a rich and interesting source of plants for ethnomedicinal and phytochemical studies.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1036-3

Optimization of co-fermentation of carrot and tomato juices by probiotic bacteria and yeast using a central composite design

Sivudu S N, Ramesh B, Kumar B V, Reddy O V S
In the present study, experiments were conducted on the suitability of tomato, carrot and mixed tomato+carrot juice for probiotication by Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei and Lysinibacillus sphaericus individually and in combination with a yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii). The combination of Lys. sphaericus and S. boulardii showed good results. Further optimization was carried out using a central composite design (CCD). The autoclaved juices were inoculated with probiotic cultures both alone or in combination with the yeast culture and incubated at 37°C for 72 h. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH levels had decreased from 6.1 to 4.0. Titratable acidity also increased from 0.12% to 0.36%, while the viable cell counts of probiotic bacteria and yeast gradually increased from 6.5 to 7.0 CFU/ml and from 5.4 to 7.9 CFU/ml, respectively. Subsequently, following further fermentation, viable cell counts decreased due to a decrease in pH and an increase in acidity as well as a lack of nutrients in the medium. The antimicrobial activity of mixed juice was found to have a maximum zone of inhibition of 11.8 mm and 9.8 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2394, respectively. Probioticated tomato and carrot juices showed good sensory attributes.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1014-3

The role of lutein in brain health and function

Maci S, Fonseca B, Zhu Y
Lutein selectively accumulates in the macula lutea and is a key component of the macular pigment. Recent research has indicated that lutein is also the predominant carotenoid in both the adult and the infant brain, and studies conducted in primates and humans have shown that lutein concentration in the retina is related to its concentrations in specific regions of the brain. A carotenoid-rich diet and high plasma levels of lutein are positively associated with cognitive status or function in healthy subjects, those with mild cognitive impairment, and subjects with Alzheimer’s disease. Current research indicates that macular pigment optical density, a measure of dietary lutein (and zeaxanthin) deposited in the macula lutea, is positively associated with cognitive function. Additionally, interventional studies provide support that supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin may enhance cognitive function and help maintain cognitive health. The beneficial effect of lutein is most likely linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its ability to integrate into cellular membranes, thereby influencing the structural properties and/or stability of those membranes, and possibly enhance gap junction communications. The aim of this review is to present the scientific evidence available to date.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1037-3

Dynamic role of natural antioxidant sources on different parameters of bread quality: a review

Pathak D, Majumdar J, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R
Improved understanding of the relationship between the consumption of antioxidant-rich food and human health has resulted in the supplementation of food products with natural antioxidants. Enrichment of a staple food such as bread with natural antioxidants can provide additional health benefits. Sources of natural antioxidants include cereals, seeds, spices, herbs, green plants, fruit, vegetables and the less expensive and easily available waste products from the food industry. However, there are technological constraints to the fortification of bread, while sensory and physical properties are important for overall consumer acceptability. Synthetic antioxidants can have serious adverse effects on health, and their substitution with natural antioxidants enhances the therapeutic and functional properties of bread and has the added advantage of increasing shelf-life. This review discusses the antioxidant activity and scavenging properties of various types of breads enriched with natural antioxidants from natural sources and the associated health benefits and sensory attributes of these breads.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1012-3

Bifidobacterium longum ES1: a probiotic with a strong anti-inflammatory phenotype

Genovés S, Ramón D
Bifidobacterium longum ES1 is a probiotic strain with an efficient anti-inflammatory effect which is supported by strong scientific evidence. This strain has been commercialized in several countries as an ingredient for functional foods or nutritional supplements. This article describes the scientific background supporting the phenotype of this probiotic strain.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-3

A new officially recognized role for nutraceuticals in the management of dyslipidemias for cardiovascular disease prevention and patient rehabilitation

Di Pierro F
Despite the widespread use of nutraceuticals, physicians generally have had a low opinion of these products and have been sceptical about their benefits. However, attitudes are now changing. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) have issued new guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention and patient rehabilitation [1], which for the first time state that some nutraceuticals can be used to obtain cardiovascular benefits: ‘nutraceuticals can be used either as alternatives or in addition to lipid-lowering drugs’. Such a statement would have been unthinkable a few years ago.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1035-2

Nutritional content, phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of yoghurt enriched with baobab pulp (Adansonia digitata)

Chipurura B, Bhebhe M, Muchuweti M
The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional content, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of yoghurt enriched with baobab pulp. Baobab yoghurt had significantly (p<0.05) higher ash, crude fibre, vitamin C, iron, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging activity than the control and commercial yoghurts. The ash, crude fibre, vitamin C and iron content was 3.7±0.01 g/100 g, 0.2±0.02 g/100 g, 18.25±0.02 mg/100 g and 0.33±0.01 mg/100 g, respectively. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging activity of the baobab yoghurt was 22.6±2.08 mg GAE/100 g, 4.23±0.25 mg CE/100 g and 19.03%, respectively. The following phenolic acids were detected in the baobab yoghurt: syringic, caffeic, p-dihydroxybenzoic, gallic, protocatechuic and chlorogenic acids. The present study showed that baobab yoghurt is a valuable source of nutrients and phenolic compounds compared to some commercial yoghurts.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1032-2

Comparative evaluation of irradiated and non-irradiated expeller-pressed virgin coconut oil for the design of novel functional antioxidant-rich non-carbonated ready-to-serve and dry beverages

Ghosh P K, Bhattacharjee P
Expeller-pressed virgin coconut oil was subjected to 0–10 kGy gamma irradiation for removal of its rancid-acid odour as judged by sensory evaluation and electronic nose systems. The optimized dose for the removal of the rancid-acid odour was 4.2 kGy. The oil was then blended with green tea extract (3:1 w/w) to produce a novel antioxidant-rich non-carbonated ready-to-serve (RTS) still beverage, which was evaluated against a control beverage prepared with non-irradiated oil. The beverages were stored at 4°C and 23°C and periodically assayed for microbial growth, sensory attributes and physiochemical and phytochemical properties. The beverage containing irradiated coconut oil had a shelf life of 13 days at 4°C. Microencapsulation of this RTS beverage produced a ‘dry beverage’ with appreciable phytochemical properties and a 29-times longer half-life compared to the RTS beverage. The reconstitution ratio of this beverage in water was 1:5 w/w. This is the first report of an oil-based beverage and describes a unique application for expeller-pressed virgin coconut oil. The antioxidant-rich RTS and dry beverages designed in this study could be promising novel health drinks for the beverage industry.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1030-2

Process optimization for the preparation of apple tea wine with analysis of its sensory and physico-chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens

Kumar V, Joshi V K, Vyas G, Thakur N S, Sharma N
Method for preparing apple tea wine using different types of tea at different concentrations were optimized and the physico-chemical, antimicrobial and sensory characteristics of the wine analysed. All characteristics were found to be directly proportional to the concentration of tea fermented naturally or with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus. In both types of fermentation, CTC (crush, tear and curl) tea-based apple tea wine received significantly higher quality scores (p≤0.05). Better results in terms of ethanol, higher alcohol concentrations and antimicrobial activity were found with 4 g tea/100 ml apple juice than with other concentrations, particularly 5 g tea/100 ml apple juice. All apple tea wines showed antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone >7 mm) against Escherichia coli (IGMC), Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 2729), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 839), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA 252) and Bacillus cereus (CRI).
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1028-2

In vitro studies on the modulatory effects of nutraceuticals and gene polymorphisms on organophosphate pesticide-induced genotoxicity as analyzed by the comet assay

Kumar N, Yadav A, Gulati S, Kanupriya D, Aggarwal N, Gupta R
Malathion and parathion are organophosphate pesticides known for their high toxicity to insects and low to moderate toxicity to humans and other mammals. We studied the antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol to combat malathion and parathion-induced DNA damage. Tail moment (TM) as measured by the comet assay was used as a biomarker of genotoxicity. To determine the antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol, heparinized fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with malathion (30 µg/ml) and parathion (2.5 µg/ml) in the presence of curcumin and carvacrol. Curcumin at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/ml significantly reduced (p<0.05) TM compared to samples exposed to malathion only. Curcumin at concentrations of 10 and 15 µg/ml also exerted an antigenotoxic effect on parathion- 1Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1136119, Haryana, India 2Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1136119, Haryana, India 3Department of Biochemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1136119, Haryana, India Dr. Anita Yadav (Associate Professor), Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India phone: +919416291480 fax: +91-1744-238277 exposed samples. Similarly, carvacrol at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 µg/ml showed a significant (p<0.05) protective effect against both pesticides. We observed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in TM when samples were treated with malathion and parathion in the presence of curcumin and carvacrol. We also studied the effect of polymorphisms of the genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 on the genotoxicity induced by both pesticides. However, we did not observe any significant association (p>0.05) of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with malathion and parathion genotoxicity.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1033-2

The impact of a nutraceutical on insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective observational study

Carrara M, Desideri S, Di Piramo D, Ferri B, Lomonaco L
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic disorder, but, unlike alcoholic liver disease, occurs in individuals with moderate or no alcohol consumption. Insulin resistance is considered to be one of the driving forces of NAFLD, and is found both in obese and in normal-weight subjects. However, current therapy strategies, such as administration of vitamin E or insulin sensitizers, can have variable clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nutraceutical based on berberine, tocotrienols and chlorogenic acid, in combination with diet and moderate aerobic physical activity, on biochemical parameters in NAFLD patients. A total of 19 patients with ultrasound- diagnosed NAFLD, elevated aminotransferase levels, body mass index >25 kg/m2 and <30 kg/m2, and/or altered lipid and/or glucose levels were enrolled in this study. Those who only followed lifestyle advice (n=10) were compared with those who had also taken the nutraceutical (n=9). We observed a marked improvement in most parameters in both groups. However, reductions in UOSD Gastroenterologia ASL 22 Regione Veneto, Via Ospedale 4/6, 37012 Bussolengo (Verona), Italy Maurizio Carrara, MD phone: 00390456712603 fax: 00390456712604 plasma glucose, insulin and HOmeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly greater in the nutraceutical group. Consequently, the use of the nutraceutical combination might reduce insulin resistance, which is likely the first cause of NAFLD.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1042-2

From hypertension to hyperlipidaemia: the nutraceutical properties of egg proteins

Sirtori C R
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death worldwide, and is characterized by the thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial wall as well as compromised blood flow. Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis include elevated blood pressure, high levels of LDL-cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, age, cigarette smoking and family history. While some of these risk factors cannot be modified, food components, such as fats, proteins, peptides, fibre and polyphenols, are likely to be important in the prevention of CVD. Recently extensive studies have evaluated the nutraceutical properties of eggs, particularly egg peptides (cholesterol in eggs is no longer considered a risk factor in the development of CVD). Egg contains antihypertensive peptides, in particular ovokinin, antidiabetic peptides as well as anti-obesity peptides and proteins. In addition, egg components may reduce cholesterol absorption from the intestine, and some egg proteins can possibly raise LDL-receptor activity in different tissues. The consumption of egg whites may decrease cholesterol levels in humans similar to the effect of soybean pro- Director, Centro Dislipidemie, A.O. Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milan, Italy tel 0039 02 50318303 teins. Well-defined egg components could thus act as nutraceuticals and could be used as functional food ingredients to prevent cardiovascular disease.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-2

Probiotics to prevent tooth decay

Di Pierro F
Dental decay is a chronic degenerative infection with a multifactorial aetiology. Oral health education begins in the prenatal period with advice from the gynaecologist and the dentist. Use of fluorine, which can be administered in a variety of ways, is one of the main methods to prevent tooth decay. However, although it has proven protective effects, its administration is not always optimal, likely due to poor scientific knowledge and fear of dental fluorosis. Can the nutraceutical sciences can offer something different? Or something more? Overgrowth and disequilibrium of pathogenic microorganism species in the oral cavity can manifest as a variety of different oral diseases, including dental caries. Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 is a bacterial strain with clinically significant probiotic applications for curtailing this pathogenic bacterial growth.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1021-1

Increasing anthocyanin content in black carrot juice by an enzyme assisted process: Optimization using response surface methodology

Kaur C, Rudraa S G, Sahac S, Vargheseb E, Nagala S
A three-level, three-factor, Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize enzyme- assisted processing (EAP), for enhancing the concentration of anthocyanins extracted (ACNs) from black carrots. The black carrot mash was subjected to pre-treatments with different concentrations of Viscozyme L (0.05–0.25% v/w), extraction temperatures (50–70ºC) and incubation time (30–90 min). Overall, a two-fold increase in ACN recovery was observed compared to untreated mash. Response surface analysis of the data,- was used to develop a three-degree polynomial equation which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: enzyme concentration = 0.23% v/w, temperature = 60°C and extraction time = 78 min. Under the optimal conditions, black carrot juice extracted via EAP had a high juice yield (86.31%) and high total monomeric ACNs (1252.15 mg/l). Results demonstrate that Viscozyme L is a potential enzyme combination for enhancing juice yields and ACN content from black carrots.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1019-1

Product characterization and antioxidant potential of rice-based jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) powder-supplemented extruded snacks

Kapoor S, Singh Ranote P, Singh B, Sharma S
Antioxidant enriched snacks prepared by supplementing rice flour with jamun powder were assessed for product quality and antioxidant activity. Rice flour was supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % hot air and freeze dried jamun powder for the preparation of the snacks. The quality parameters of extrudates, that is, the expansion ratio and water absorption index, decreased with increasing jamun powder supplementation levels, whereas bulk density (g/cm3), hardness and water solubility increased. Sensory scores were found to be highest for 10% jamun powder (hot air and freeze dried) supplemented snacks which were chosen for further studies. Antioxidant activity improved significantly upon incorporation of jamun powder into rice snacks. Anthocyanins were not detected in control samples, while freeze dried jamun powder-supplemented snacks had 9.52% higher anthocyanins than hot air dried jamun powdersupplemented snacks. Total phenols increased by 89.72% and 80.42% in supplemented snacks containing freeze dried and hot air dried jamun powder, respectively, at a 10% supplementation level. Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India tel. +918054557723 The study was undertaken to determine the antioxidant potential of jamun powder in extruded snacks and to study the functional properties of the developed product.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1015-1

Studies on the Physicochemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Ash Gourd-Carrot Juice

Kadam D, Lele S
The formulation and storage stability of ash gourdcarrot juice was investigated. Cloud stability is an important criterion for ash gourd-carrot juice and was achieved with the addition of 0.35% pectin. The effects of heat treatment, physicochemical properties, microbiological count and nutrient loss of β-carotene and total polyphenols were determined. The processing temperature was optimised at 95°C for 10 min before the juice was bottled. Nutrient content and physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of storage at 4°C and 28°C, respectively. The pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, reducing sugar content and sensory score did not alter significantly during storage at either temperature. However, cloud stability decreased by 20% and 32%, while juice lightness increased by 23% and 31% at 4°C and 28°C, respectively. Nutrient content decreased significantly during storage. The results indicated that the quality of juice stored for up to 8 weeks at both 4°C and 28°C was acceptable. Therefore, ready-to-drink ash gourd-carrot blended juice is nutritious, healthful and can be considered for commercialization.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1011-1

Changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of turmeric as affected by cooking time

Adefegha S A, Oboh G, Olasehinde T A, Osunmo K
This study sought to assess the effects of cooking time on the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of turmeric extracts. Steam cooked turmeric extracts were prepared by cooking 10 g of turmeric for 10 (SCT10) and 20 (SCT20) min, respectively, while the raw sample (RWT) was prepared by soaking 10 g of turmeric in 200 ml of distilled water for 1 h. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the turmeric extracts were determined and phenolic composition was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The ferric reducing antioxidant property, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH)] scavenging abilities and interaction of the extracts with α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were also investigated. SCT20 (4.26 mg/g and 3.96 mg/g) had significantly higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than SCT10 (3.58 mg GAE/g and 3.38 mg QE/g) and RWT (2.44 mg/g and 2.38 mg/g), respectively. 1Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Unit, Department of Biochemistry, School of Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, PMB 704, Akure 340001, Ondo State, Nigeria 2Nutrition and Toxicology Division, Food Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, PMB 21023, Lagos 10001, Nigeria SCT20 (76.8 mmol/100 g) had the highest reducing property, while RWT (68.2 mmol AAE/100 g) had the lowest. Furthermore, SCT20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher DPPH, NO and OH radical scavenging ability than SCT10 and RWT. The extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. While RWT had the lowest inhibitory effects, SCT20 had the highest. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin and circumin. The phenolic constituents of the steam cooked extracts were significantly higher than those of the raw samples except for caffeic acid which decreased with increased cooking time. Therefore, steam cooking increased the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties as well as the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of turmeric.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1004-1

In vitro oxidative burst assay to evaluate the efficacy of Immune-G-matrix™, an innovative yeast-b-glucans, zinc and copper-based formulation

Buonocore D, Seneci A, Carrabetta M E, Pialorsi F, Zurlo M, Bottone M G, Veneroni P, Verri M, Dossena M
Oxygen is necessary for the survival of aerobic organisms, while at the same time it is able to acquire electrons generating toxic molecules called reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g. superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide). ROS can generate reactive oxygen metabolites, causing oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. On the other hand, in the higher organisms the immune system uses ROS against pathogens. Infections or other stimuli can induce cell activation (e.g. neutrophil cells) and functional responses, such as the oxidative or respiratory burst and later ROS release. Subjects with deficits in intracellular defence mechanisms have an increased susceptibility to infections by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of an innovative yeast-β-glucans, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) formulation, Immuno-GMatrix ™, based on G-MatrixLipid™ technology, to induce oxidative burst in neutrophil cells in comparison with an activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Oxidative burst evaluation was based on the capacity of released ROS to change the fluorescent properties of a substrate, dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR). We measured the intensity of 1 Department of Biology and Biotechnology, “L. Spallanzani” University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy 2 Truffini & Reggè Farmaceutici Srl, Milan, Italy fluorescence compared with a negative control sample (differentiated cells) and a positive control sample (cells incubated with PMA). The results showed that Immuno-G-Matrix™ was able to induce functional responses, such as the neutrophil oxidative burst, as is the activating agent PMA.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1040-1

Developing a bacteriotherapy-based approach to control streptococcal infections

Tagg J R
The author provides an account of the background to his discovery of bacteriocin production by streptococcal bacteria and the subsequent demonstration over five decades of research that the streptococcal bacteriocin-like activities are distinctive both for the abundance of their production and for the chemical heterogeneity of their structures. The initial impetus for this research was an endeavour to identify candidate bacteriocin-producing, non-disease-associated streptococci for potential development as oral probiotics capable of providing protection to young children against Streptococcus pyogenes infections. The practical outcome of these studies has been the development and commercial distribution of the bacteriocin-producing probiotic strains Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) and S. salivarius M18 (BLIS M18) for application to the control of a wide variety of bacterial infections and disequilibria of the oral microbiota, currently ranging from streptococcal pharyngitis and otitis media to tooth decay and halitosis.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-1

Bacterial therapy in pregnancy to drive the intra-partum colonization of newborns

Di Pierro F
Recently, a very interesting paper has been published on Nature Medicine. The Authors have clearly shown the relevancy of a close contact between mother and newborn to effect appropriate passage of microbes to her infant [1]. They have demonstrated that it is possible to get partial restoration of the microbiota of cesarean-born infants by exposing them to maternal vaginal fluids. Vaginal microbe transfer to cesarean-born infants makes them “microbially” similar to vaginally delivered infants. Epidemiological studies have clearly shown an association between cesarean-section delivery and increased risk of obesity, asthma, allergies and immune deficiencies [2-5]. The authors’ attempts to establish an appropriate microbiota in cesarean-born infants by exposing them to the mothers’ vaginal fluids demonstrates the importance of mother-infant microbe transfer and highlights, as a next step, the importance of specifically- directed “manipulation” of the pre-term maternal microbiota in order to further optimize and enrich this transfer process.