Articles published in 2017

30 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1017-1

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of mahua (Madhuca longifolia) flowers and fruit

Singh V, Mishra S, Singh J, Ray A.K.
Infectious diseases remain a major health challenge and are becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A novel approach is to exploit human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are now known to reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases among breastfed infants. HMOs have bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against a wide range of important pathogens, such as Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridioides difficile, Entamoeba histolytica and Candida albicans. Furthermore, HMOs can act synergistically with antibiotics, reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration for certain antibiotics by up to 32-fold. This could extend the therapeutic window of some antibiotics and also reduce the doses required to treat infectious diseases. Given the risk posed by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, it would be advantageous to further exploit this synergism between antibiotics and HMOs.
21 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1010-4

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction of phycocyanin and phenolics from Arthospira platensis var. ‘lonor’ biomass

Mazumder A, Prabuthas P, Mishra HN
This study describes the enhanced and simultaneous extraction of phycocyanin and phenolics from Arthospira platensis biomass. Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was investigated to determine its efficacy regarding phycocyanin and phenolics yield. An optimization experiment using response surface methodology revealed that the variables ethanol concentration (20%–95%, v/v), extraction temperature (15°C–65°C), sonicator amplitude (20%–100%) and extraction time (60–300 s) have a significant effect on phycocyanin and phenolics yield. The maximum yield of phycocyanin (29.9 mg/g) and total phenolics (2.4 mg/g) was predicted to occur at 40% ethanol concentration, 34.9°C extraction temperature, sonicator amplitude of 95% and extraction time of 104.7 s. The resultant extract exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant response with an IC50 value of 85.75 μg/ml. This extract can be incorporated into functional foods as the extracting solvents ethanol and water have GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status.
20 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1028-4

Characterization and analysis of dhokla with incorporated tomato powder

Ray S, Saha R, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R
Dhokla is easy to cook and very popular as a snack. Tomato is an excellent fortification ingredient for food products due to its nutritional properties, high antioxidant activity and good sensory characteristics. In this study, dhokla was fortified with 1%, 4% and 7% tomato powder and analyzed on the day of preparation and after storage. Acidity increased from 0.09 to 0.45 following tomato powder incorporation. The correlation coefficient (R2) demonstrated that antioxidant content is strongly associated with antioxidant activity. Rheological characteristics suggested that dhokla batter has viscoelastic properties. The moisture content of dhokla decreased from 16.928 to 15.10, from 18.05 to 17.45 and from 20.10 to 18.03 at the three levels of fortification after storage. Nutritional values were highest when dhokla was fortified with 7% tomato powder. Sensory analysis showed that dhokla containing 4% tomato powder has the best overall acceptability.
19 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1015-4

Determination of steviol glycosides in seven Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extracts routinely used in the food and confectionary industry

Bastone A, Rossi A, Bagnati R, Passoni A, Salmona M, Diomede L
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extracts are used as natural non-nutritive sweeteners in several countries worldwide. The principal components of stevia leaf extracts are stevioside and rebaudioside A. Stevioside has about 300 times the sweetening power of sucrose, but is the main cause of the bitter aftertaste of crude stevia extracts. Rebaudioside A has greater sweetening power and a less pronounced bitter aftertaste, and so is usually the preferred component. The overall taste of the sweetener depends on the composition of the stevia extract used and the steviol glycosides present. To characterize the unique taste profile of stevia sweeteners, we analyzed stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B and isosteviol content in seven different commercial food-grade extracts used as raw material. A sensitive method, using HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, was applied. The amount of steviol glycoside in the seven different extracts varied. As expected, rebaudioside A was the most abundant, ranging from 497 to 1,000 mg/g. One sample contained only rebaudioside A. Rebaudioside B and stevioside levels ranged from negligible to 40% of the total glycosides determined, with concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 386 mg/g of raw material. The concentration of isosteviol was below the limit of detection in all samples. These data can help in the selection of the most suitable commercial extracts for use as sweeteners in food, beverages and confectionery.
18 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1012-4

Hair loss in older women: supplement to increase scalp hair thickness and reduce hair loss

Mastropietro F, Corasaniti N, Piacentini M, Celleno L
Hair loss and thinning hair are serious problems affecting a large number of women, especially during the menopause. A food supplement containing fermented soy, ornithine, arginine and Tricovel® Tricoage45+ with Bioequolo (Giuliani SpA, Milan, Italy), formulated to promote hair growth in women over the age of 45, was used in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in healthy adult females going through the menopause. Subjects with hair loss and less than 80% of their hair in the anagen phase were randomized to receive a single daily dose of the study product or placebo. Wash test results showed that hair loss was significantly reduced after the first 8 weeks of treatment with the study product. Hair pull test results also showed significant improvements (fewer hairs removed) in subjects treated with the study product vs. placebo after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, analysis of microscope images revealed a statistically significant increase in the conversion of vellus hair into terminal hair after 12 weeks of treatment with the study product compared with placebo. Self-evaluation by the subjects confirmed these improvements. This study shows that the dietary supplement can decrease hair loss and promote hair growth in women over 45 years of age.
17 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1004-4

Dysglycaemia, diagnosis and treatment

Derosa G, Maffioli P
Euglycaemia is characterized by fasting plasma glucose levels of 70–100 mg/dl, while dysglycaemia is characterized by fasting plasma glucose levels of ≥100 mg/dl. The term dysglycaemia covers three conditions: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired carbohydrate tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The identification and classification of dysglycaemia and ways to treat it in order to prevent complications are discussed.
16 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1025-4

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-gastric cancer activity of Syzygium alternifolium fruits

Babu TMC, Bhaskar BV, Devi S, Rajendra W
Syzygium alternifolium (SA) is a plant widely used in folk medicine. The current study was carried out to characterize the anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and anti-gastric cancer activity of S. alternifolium fruit extracts. S. alternifolium total phenolics (SATP) and S. alternifolium aqueous extract (SAAE) were used to examine anti-H. pylori and H. pylori urease inhibitory activity. The anti-gastric cancer activity of these extracts was also evaluated using an MTT cell viability assay followed by cell cycle progression analysis. The in vitro results showed that both extracts have dose-dependent anti-H. pylori and anti-gastric cancer activity. SATP has significant anti-H. pylori activity against the Hp26695 and HpP12 strains with MIC50 values of 148±20 and 141±30 μg/ml, respectively, while SAAE has moderate activity compared to the antibiotic amoxicillin. SATP showed significant urease activity with an IC50 of 98±6.4 μg/ml, while SAAE showed a moderate effect compared with positive control. Moreover, SATP showed significant inhibition of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell growth by inhibiting the G2/M phase of the cell cycle with an IC50 of 77.9±0.2 μg/ml, while SAAE exhibited moderate inhibition compared with normal control. Reverse phase UV-HPLC analysis indicated the presence of the phenolic compounds cinnamic, gallic, ferulic and vanillic acid in these extracts. The results suggest that SATP and SAAE extracted from S. alternifolium have significant anti-H. pylori and anti-gastric cancer activity and offer protection against gastritis. Hence, these extracts are recommended for patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
15 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-0001-4

Bacterial therapy to help eradicate Helicobacter pylori and to reduce the gastrointestinal side effects of antibiotics: a possible treatment scheme?

Di Pierro F
Helicobacter pylori (Fig. 1), previously called Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach. It was identified in 1982 by two Australian who found it in a patient with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers, conditions not previously thought to have a bacterial aetiology. H. pylori is also linked to the development of duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer. It is present in the stomach of 50% of the world’s population and asymptomatic in over 80% of those infected. The standard first-line therapy to eradicate H. pylori, is the so-called triple therapy consisting of proton pump inhibitors (PPI), mainly omeprazole, along with the antibiotics clarithromycin and amoxicillin. Variations on the triple therapy have been developed over the years, using a different PPI, or replacing amoxicillin with metronidazole for those with an allergy to penicillin. Due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, an additional round of antibiotic therapy, the quadruple therapy, consisting of a PPI, a bismuth colloid, metronidazole and tetracyclines, has been developed.
14 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1002-3

Effect of sprouting on barley flour and cookie quality of wheat–barley flour blends

Yaqoob S, Baba WN, Masoodi FA, Bazaz R, Shafi M
Different proportions of raw and sprouted barley flour were separately blended with wheat flour and the mixtures analyzed for their physicochemical and pasting properties. Blending with barley flour resulted in an increase in protein, fat and ash content. An increase in barley fraction significantly decreased the bulk, true density and colour (L* and b* values) of blends, while the angle of repose increased significantly. Incorporation of sprouted barley flour compared with raw barley flour led to a greater percentage change in the parameters studied: peak viscosity and setback increased, while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. Blending of wheat flour with sprouted barley flour in comparison with raw barley flour showed lower increases in peak viscosity and setback values. Flour blends were then used for the production of cookies that were analyzed for their physicochemical, textural and sensory attributes. Cookies containing raw barley flour had a higher spread ratio than cookies made from sprouted barley flour blends. Blending with barley decreased the L* value of cookies, with incorporation of sprouted barley showing a smaller decrease in L* value than raw barley. Hence, incorporation of sprouted barley resulted in flour blends with improved pasting properties and better quality gluten-free cookies.
13 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1007-3

Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) ‘milk’ reverses acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in a murine model

Onuoha NO, Ogbusua NO, Uwaezuoke NJ, Ejike CECC
The usefulness of tigernut milk (TNM) in reversing acetaminophen-induced liver injury was investigated. Twenty-five rats were randomized into five equal groups. Four groups were challenged on day 0 with 2500 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) acetaminophen. Subsequently, from days 1 to 7, they were treated with 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 kg/mg bw TNM, respectively, per os. The fifth group served as the normal control group. On the 8th day, the rats were sacrificed humanely and biochemical markers of toxicity and oxidative stress were determined in their sera. TNM at the tested concentrations significantly reversed liver injury as shown by liver function markers. For example, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations decreased dose-dependently and significantly (p<0.001) from 298.9±32.3 in the negative control group to 159.3±22.1 in the 2000 mg/kg bw TNM group. In fact, the serum ALP concentrations of all test rats were statistically similar (p>0.001) to those of the normal control rats. These biochemical data are corroborated by histological findings. Superoxide dismutase activity (U/mg protein) was increased significantly (p<0.001) from 108.0±7.4 in the negative control group to 283.9±20.5 in the 500 mg/kg bw TNM group, and indeed in all test groups. Malondialdehyde concentrations in the test rats suggest less efficient clearance of the break-down products of lipid peroxidation. Phytochemicals in the TNM may have acted directly as antioxidants, or induced the synthesis of glutathione (which exerts downstream positive effects on antioxidant systems), thereby aiding recovery from drug-induced liver damage.
12 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1005-3

Preservation of cashew apple juice using Aloe vera and hydroxychavicol

Talasila U, Beebi SK, Vechalapu RR
Cashew apples are very nutritious and could be used the health, medicine and industry sectors if the high perishability and short shelf-life of the fruit and juice could be improved. Thus, the preservation of cashew apple juice for use in various applications is an important issue for food technologists. In this study, Aloe vera juice, hydroxychavicol and/or sterile filtration were employed to prolong the shelf-life of cashew apple juice. Juice quality (sensory, physicochemical and microbiological) was analysed after 15 days. The results showed that juice which underwent sterile filtration and was then preserved with hydroxychavicol was stable with preserved nutrient quality and medicinal properties for 45 days.
11 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1006-3

The soothing effect of menthol, eucalyptol and high-intensity cooling agents

Diomede L, Salmona M
Several compounds are commonly used as flavours in foods such as chewing gum and candy to generate a pleasant cool sensation which can have a soothing effect on the upper respiratory tract. Menthol and eucalyptol are the flavours most widely used as cooling agents and their effect is supported by scientific data. The cool sensory perception they induce is due to their ability to activate cold receptors, particularly the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), found in the skin and oral cavity. The ability to activate cold receptors has been also shown for non-volatile and non-menthol coolants developed since the 1970s, assessed as Generally Recognized as Safe and approved for use in food by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States. Among these coolants, ethyl 3-(p-menthane-3-carboxamido)acetate, its analogue N-[[5-methyl-2-(1- methylethyl)cyclohexyl]carbonyl]glycine propyl ester and N-ethyl-p-menthane-3-carboxamide have demonstrated a greater cooling effect than menthol and are defined as ‘high-intensity cooling agents’. Studies in human volunteers who consumed flavoured chewing gum found that the flavour intensity of menthol or eucalyptol, and consequently their cooling effect, increases with chewing and that volatile flavour compounds in the oral cavity are forced into air exhaled through the nasal compartment. It was thus confirmed that the soothing effect and increased air flow perceived in the nose and throat are sensations and not pharmacological actions.
10 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1008-3

Myoinositol: mechanisms of action and role in the treatment of metabolic diseases, infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome

Menichini D, Facchinetti F
Inositols are natural compounds present in animal and plant cells and play a key role in glucose metabolism, acting as second messengers of insulin. They have been shown to be able to counteract the downstream consequences of insulin resistance, exerting beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We summarize the mechanisms of action of inositol compounds, focusing on the most important functions of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, hyperlidaemia, insulin resistance and PCOS.
9 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-1016-3

Metabolic disorders and cancer: is there a role for nutraceuticals?

Cazzaniga M
Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal excess accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, which is recognized as a real organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions, and have a close relationship with oncological risk. The relationship between obesity and carcinogenesis is complex and not fully understood. However, obesity is frequently associated with several pathological states such as chronic inflammation, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (generally defined as metabolic disorders) which contribute to the increased risk of cancer in the overweight population. Current data show that metabolic disorders are often reversible with prompt therapeutic intervention, so these conditions and related carcinogenetic pathways should be managed for cancer prevention and therapy. Metformin and statins have demonstrated their ability to interfere with tumour processes but unfortunately also produce side effects, making long-term and preventative use difficult. Some nutraceutical compounds seem to be ideal for providing similar activity and effectiveness as these agents but with minor or absent side effects. This review examines the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders, their relationship with cancer and the possibility of interfering with associated processes with some promising nutraceuticals used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional therapies.
8 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-0001-3

New findings suggest selenium supplementation to reduce the risks of PROM in pregnancy: a new overview concerning supplementation during pregnancy

Di Pierro F
New analysis published in the New England Journal of Medicine [1] has identified six genomic regions conferring risk of premature delivery following preterm rupture of membranes (PROM), which is a major health problem worldwide. The information obtained may be useful in implementing new preventive strategies, some of which are simple and inexpensive, such as the use of selenium dietary supplements. The study conducted at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Center (USA) as part of an international collaboration identified six genomic regions that affect the duration of pregnancy and time of delivery. The study, which involved more than 50,000 women, could have important consequences for the prevention of premature births and related complications. Premature births (those that occur before the 37th week of pregnancy) are an important public health problem globally: it is estimated that premature birth is the main cause of death among children under the age of five [2, 3].
7 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1032-2

Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) and their effect on the oxidative stability of ghee

Singha AK, Kumara V, Singh K
Antioxidants were extracted from oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) using the solvents water, ethanol, methanol, acetone and diethyl ether. Although a higher extract yield was obtained with water, in general higher total phenolic and flavonoid content and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using ethanol. The antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract of oregano leaves in ghee during storage and frying was evaluated in comparison with the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Three quality parameters, namely peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) content and p-anisidine value (PAV), of ghee were analyzed. The PV, FFA content and PAV of control ghee samples increased significantly during storage and frying as compared to the ghee samples containing oregano extract (OGE), BHA or BHT. The frying period had a greater effect on changes in PV, FFA content and PAV of ghee than the storage period. Ghee samples with added 1.0% (w/w) OGE showed the least increase in PV, FFA content and PAV, which was comparable with samples with added 0.02% (w/w) BHA and BHT. The study revealed that oregano leaves could be a good natural source of antioxidants and can be used in ghee to retard oxidative deterioration during storage and frying.
6 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1021-2

Microencapsulated supercritical carbon dioxide extract of small cardamom enriches the nutraceutical value of custard

Dutta S, Bhattacharjee P
The spray dried α-amylase-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extract of small cardamom (rich in 1,8-cineole) was used for the fortification of custard to obtain a new designer nutraceutical custard. The encapsulate was employed at concentrations of 4%, 4.5% and 5% (w/w) to formulate the custards. Custard formulated with 4.5% of encapsulate was most preferred by the sensory panel. This custard sample showed a more stable texture, higher phytochemical properties and lower microbial load than the control sample (formulated without encapsulate). This is the first study on the formulation of a new designer nutraceutical custard by fortification with encapsulated SC-CO2 extract of small cardamom. The processes described here can safely be employed in the development of other nutraceutical or functional foods, which inevitably involves the loss of the phytochemicals of food constituents during manufacture.
5 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1018-2

Comparative study of colour, pasting and antioxidant properties of different wheat cultivars as affected by toasting and roasting

Puniaa S, Sandhua KS, Sharmab S
Wheat has been reported to contain a variety of bioactive compounds which have health benefits. The bioactive compounds, however, are affected by the different processing conditions applied to wheat flour during the manufacture of different products. Milled wheat is used to produce a variety of baked products, but the effect of toasting and roasting before milling has not been examined. Therefore, the effects of mild (toasting) and strong (roasting) heat treatments on the Hunter Lab colour, pasting and antioxidant properties of flours from commercially important wheat cultivars grown in India were investigated. Antioxidant properties including total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), metal chelating activity (MCA) and ABTS+ scavenging activity were studied. Both heat treatments resulted in a reduction in bulk density (BD) and Hunter L* values. However, Hunter a* and b* values were increased. The AOA, MCA and ABTS+ scavenging activity of flours increased after both treatments, while TFC was decreased and TPC was increased after toasting but decreased after roasting. All pasting parameters except pasting temperature increased with toasting but decreased after roasting. Flour from cv.WHD-943 showed the highest AOA, TPC and ABTS+ scavenging activity both before and after the two heat treatments.
4 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1016-2

Association of dietary calcium with blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women

Mohajeri M, Nemati A, Hazrati S, Iranpour F
Objective: To investigate the association of dietary calcium with blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women. Design: This study used data collected from healthcare centres in Ardebil for 137 pregnant women aged 30–35 years. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using a single 24-hour food recall and Nutritionist IV software. Height and weight were measured after overnight fasting with all participants wearing light gowns. Blood pressure measurements were taken in the sitting position after a resting period of at least 5 min. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with weight gain and blood pressure. Results: Mean±SD systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 150.19±50.45 and 70.18±11.16 mmHg, respectively. Mean±SD calcium intake was 784.59±33.36 mg/day. There was a significant association between dietary calcium intake and diastolic blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women (p≤0.05). However, the association between dietary calcium intake and systolic blood pressure and weight was not significant (p≥0.05). Conclusion: Dietary calcium intake can affect blood pressure and weight gain in pregnant women.
3 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1013-2

Rational approach to sequential optimization of antioxidative whey protein hydrolysate production

Devi K, Haripriya S, Kumar JKN, Dharini V, Kumar V
A two-step method for sequential optimization was designed based on the role of hydrolytic factors in the preparation of antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPH). In the first step, the rates of reaction- related variables such as pH, temperature and the enzyme/substrate (E/s) ratio (w/w) were optimized to 1.5, 37°C and 1:100 for pepsin, 8, 42°C and 1:100 for trypsin, and 7.8, 37°C and 1:50 for pancreatin, respectively, with maximum degrees of hydrolysis of 4.5%, 14% and 15.2%, respectively. In the second step, hydrolysis was performed at the optimum conditions determined in the first step. The optimum hydrolysis times were 1.5 h for pepsin and 2 h each for trypsin and pancreatin based on their maximum reducing powers of 0.31, 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. In sequential hydrolysis, the optimized pepsin hydrolysates with subsequent action of trypsin and pancreatin individually were optimized at their respective E/s ratios of 1:50 and 1:100 (w/w) based on their respective degrees of hydrolysis of 13.6% and 14.8%, while the optimum hydrolysis times were 4.5 h and 2.5 h for reducing powers of 0.66 and 0.75, respectively. This study indicates that sequential optimization for the production of antioxidative WPH could be better than the traditional one factor at a time (OFAT) method.
2 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1033-2

Nutraceuticals in cardio-metabolic therapy

Derosa G, Maffioli P
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world and the leading cause of death, hospitalization and disability among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this paper is to discuss which nutraceuticals could be helpful in controlling factors contributing to high cardiovascular risk, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
1 Gennaio 2017
DOI: 10.17470/NF-017-0001-1

Bifidobacterium longum W11: an antibiotic-resistant probiotic

Di Pierro F
Possible unwanted consequences of antibiotic use include: (a) the selection of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria; (b) increased susceptibility of the host to new infections; (c) gram-negative bacterial overgrowth; (d) diarrhoea; and (e) Clostridium difficile colonization [1]. Theoretically, except for antibiotic resistance, all these effects could be alleviated with probiotics. However, even a small delay between antibiotic administration and supplementation with probiotics severely reduces the positive impact of the probiotics as they are unable to integrate into the gut microbiota. The high sensitivity of probiotics to antibiotics prevents stable colonization of the gut, thus ensuring only non-significant and transient effects. However, the use of antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be beneficial. Of course, for safety reasons, this resistance must not be transferable and must not be located in plasmid DNA as probiotics could otherwise be responsible for dangerous horizontal gene transfer (Fig. 1) to pathogens [2]. Antibiotic-resistant probiotics sound very attractive, even tempting pharmaceutical companies to falsely claim some probiotic strains have antibiotic-resistant properties.