Articles published in 2016


8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1020-4
2016

Impact of a fibre and herbal extract nutritional supplement programme on individual quality of life

Matravers P, Bianchini R, Steely N, Likimani T A
Overweight and obesity are common conditions in developed countries and are associated with adverse effects on health and quality of life (QoL). Nutritional supplements are known to assist in efforts to achieve and maintain a healthy weight and improve QoL. In this study we evaluated the effects of a programme of nutritional supplements consisting of a supplement containing glucomannan (a water-soluble dietary fibre), magnesium and saffron (Arbonne Evolution Full Control, Watermelon Kiwi Flavor Supplement Powder) and a herbal supplement containing Svetol® green coffee extract, green tea extract, natural caffeine and quercetin (Arbonne Evolution Thermobooster Supplement Tablet) combined with a calorie-controlled diet, adequate protein intake and moderate exercise. Adult subjects (n=77) who were overweight or obese were tested for QoL improvement using a validated questionnaire (SF-36). After 16 weeks, the subjects completing the study (n=66; 86%) reported improvements in general health (97.0% responded positively to a question assessing current general health compared with 69.7% at baseline, while 60.7% responded positively to a question assessing improvement in health during the past year compared with 21.2% at baseline). An improvement was also seen with regard to energy (83.3% responded positively to a question assessing current energy level at week 16 compared with 68.2% at baseline). Improvements were seen in seven of eight subscales of the SF-36. The supplement programme was well tolerated and well accepted by users. Statistically significant improvements versus baseline in body composition parameters, including weight, were observed at some intermediate time points. A statistically significant improvement in waist/hip ratio (–2.0%) was observed at week 16. This combination of nutritional supplements is well accepted by consumers and may help to improve QoL when used as part of an ongoing programme to maintain a healthy weight.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1005-4
2016

Changes in bioactive compounds, quality attributes and rheological behaviour of black grape juice caused by microwave and conventional heating

Mirzaee S, Askari G R, Emam-Djomeh Z, Garavand F
In this study, black grape juice containing different concentrations of soluble solids (15, 20, 30 and 40°Brix) obtained by microwave or conventional heating at different operational pressures (12, 38.5 and 100 kPa) was investigated for bioactive compounds, quality attributes and rheological behaviour. The more concentrated the juice, the higher the anthocyanin and phenolic compound degradation, which in turn resulted in decreased antioxidant potential. All Hunter colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) decreased with juice concentration. Microwave heating showed better performance compared to conventional thermal heating in terms of colour retention, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and the antioxidant activity of the juice concentrate. Samples processed at lower operational pressures showed a slighter decrease in quality attributes regardless of the heating method used. The results indicate that the use of a higher microwave power (600 W instead of 450 W) at an evaporation pressure of 38.5 kPa resulted in better preservation of quality characteristics against thermal destruction. The juice concentrates obeyed Newton’s law and the heating method did not influence rheological behaviour.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1007-4
2016

In vitro and in vivo antidiabetic effects of the ethanol extract from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake)

Takashima A, Sano K, Nakagawa S, Toshima G, Takahashi J, Kurosaki F, Sasaki A, Hiwatashi K, Hata K
We examined the expression patterns of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells that spontaneously or chemically differentiated into intestinal epithelial cells. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of intestinal glucose transporters such as GLUT-1 and -2 was increased by both types of differentiation. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of extracts from Lentinula edodes on glucose transport in intestinal Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by 5 mM sodium butyrate. The ethanol extract of L. edodes (LEE) at 0.1 mg/ml markedly inhibited glucose intake through the monolayer of differentiated Caco-2 cells; however, neither water nor the 50% (v/v) ethanol extract affected glucose transport through these cells at the same concentration. We also investigated the effects of LEE on plasma glucose levels in mice with hyperglycaemia induced by feeding with a high fat diet (HFD). The results obtained showed that LEE reduced plasma glucose levels by 64.0% in HFD-fed mice.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1041-4
2016

Inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and oxidative stress by some common apple varieties

Oboh G, Omojokun O S, Oyeleye S I, Akinyemi A J
In recent times, the consumption of apples has been encouraged for the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, but biochemical evidence to support this practice is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation potential as well as the total phenol and flavonoid contents of aqueous extracts of the apple varieties Malus sylvestris (green apple), Malus pumila (red apple) and Syzygium samarangense (wax apple). The results showed that all apple varieties inhibited α-amylase (IC50=12.66–16.98 µg/ml) and α-glucosidase (13.55–16.23 µg/ml) in a dosedependent manner, with green apple showing the highest inhibitory activity while wax apple had the least. Similarly, all apple varieties showed dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50=222.92–278.71 µg/ml) with green apple also showing the highest scavenging activity while wax apple showed the least. Furthermore, the aqueous extracts of the apple varieties dosedependently inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas (38.60–53.57 µg/ml), with wax apple exhibiting the highest inhibitory potential. Also, the total phenol content of the apple varieties ranged from 16.14 to 17.45 mg GAE/100 g, while the flavonoid content ranged from 4.17 to 5.56 mg QUE/100 g, with green apple having the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The biological activities exhibited by the apple varieties could be attributed to the presence of biologically active photochemicals. Furthermore, the apple variety (green apple) with the highest phenolic content showed the best overall activity, indicating the potent role of phenolic compounds in the management of diabetes, thereby providing biochemical support for the use of apples as a functional food in diabetes management.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1003-4
2016

Liquorice flavonoid oil increased skeletal muscle thickness as assessed by ultrasound in training football athletes

Myojina C, Matsuda Y, Tokimoto M, Matsunami T, Kawanishi M, Kakimoto S, Nakagawa K
Liquorice flavonoid oil (LFO) consisting of liquorice hydrophobic polyphenols in medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) is a new functional food ingredient effective for preventing metabolic syndrome. As it has been recently shown that LFO significantly increased skeletal muscle mass in mice, we hypothesized that it would also increase skeletal muscle mass in humans. Therefore, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with male football athletes who ingested 300 mg per day of LFO concentrate solution for 8 weeks during the course of training at Kindai University, Osaka. Ultrasound imaging analysis revealed that the muscle thickness of the anterior thighs and anterior brachial regions in the LFO group were both significantly increased by 2.5% at week 8 in comparison to baseline, but not in the placebo group. In addition, although abdominal muscle thickness significantly increased in both the LFO and the placebo groups at week 8 in comparison to baseline, the increase in the LFO group was 1.8 times greater than that in the placebo group (p<0.05). Interestingly, stratified analysis by two team positions revealed that the offensive backs group, who require speed, gained more anterior thigh muscle, while the defensive line group, who require pushing force, gained more anterior branchial muscle with repeated intake of LFO. These results correlate well with the position-specific training of the two groups. This study indicates that LFO can contribute as a dietary supplement ingredient to increase or maintain skeletal muscle mass in humans in combination with exercise. This is the first report showing that LFO, which consists of liquorice polyphenols, increases muscle mass in humans.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1001-4
2016

Enhancement of calcium absorption and bone health by fermented soybean

Puria A, Mirb S R, Kulkarnic B, Pandaa B P
The effects of metabolites produced during soy fermentation on calcium absorption and maintaining bone health have been studied in the mice model by measuring serum calcium and phosphorus levels, bone mineral density (BMD) and arterial calcification. The nutritional composition of different experimental diets was determined. Both bone mineral content (BMC) and the cross-sectional area of the shaft of the femur were significantly (p<0.01) increased and had a much greater effect on BMD when mice were treated with experimental diet D3 (dehulled soybean fermented with Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2756) and diet D4 (dehulled soybean fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and B. subtilis MTCC 2756) as compared to diet D1 (unfermented dehulled soybean). The group of mice treated with experimental diets D3 and D4 did not show calcium deposition in the arterial wall. The beneficial effects may be due to aglycone isoflavones as well as a higher amount of vitamin K2 in experimental diets D3 and D4.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1010-4
2016

Altered gender-related homocysteine metabolism and lipid panel in healthy heavy smokers: a possible role for nutraceutical supplementation

Vigna L, Fenoglio C, Bamonti F, Novembrino C, De Giuseppe R, Dellanoce C, Coassin L, Cighetti G, Maiavacca R, Gregori D
In recent years, clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested that increased concentrations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) could be an additional independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1]. It has been established that a very high tHcy concentration due to inborn metabolic errors causing enzyme alterations in homocysteine metabolism can lead to serious thrombotic events at a young age [2]. Mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is recognized as a potential risk factor for adult cardiovascular disease, and many observational studies, and case and placebo-controlled trials, are seeking to determine whether it is a cause or an effect of the disease [3]. Hyperhomocysteinemia can be caused by genetic and/ or acquired factors due to lifestyle (i.e., nutritional habits), renal insufficiency and age [3]. It is known that low levels or deficiency in our diet of some group B vitamins, in particular cobalamin and/or folate (required cofactors for further homocysteine metabolism through the remethylation pathway), result in moderate elevations in tHcy levels.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-4
2016

Did cranberry fail to show its ability to protect against recurrent urinary tract infections?

Di Pierro F
On 27 October 2016, one of the most prestigious medical journals in the world, JAMA, published a negative double-blind and placebo controlled clinical study conducted by researchers from Yale (USA) in which a highly standardized, proanthocyanidin- A (PAC-A)-containing cranberry extract was used [1]. According to the conclusion of the trial: ‘Among older women residing in nursing homes, administration of cranberry capsules vs placebo resulted in no significant difference in presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 year’. An editorial by LE Nicolle in the same issue of JAMA flatly condemns the use of cranberry PACs to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and calls on healthcare providers to stop using cranberry and switch back to antibiotics [2].
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1009-3
2016

Probiotics and immune modulation: reducing risk for cold and flu

Lehtoranta L, Lehtinen M, Ouwehand A C
The common cold and flu are very common human diseases affecting all age groups. There are no cures for the common cold which is caused by over 200 viruses, although vaccines against influenza viruses are available. The potential beneficial effects of probiotics for the common cold have been widely studied. Meta-analyses show that probiotics have general benefits, with some strains performing better than others. This review focuses on the effects of probiotics on the common cold and flu. We discuss the aetiology of and immune responses to cold viruses and the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics. In addition, we review specific clinical studies investigating probiotic efficacy in respiratory infections in children and adults. We also discuss whether probiotic consumption for reducing risk of colds and flu could result in cost savings for society.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1039-3
2016

Can nutrition education in primary school students affect dietary habits?

Mohajeri M, Sepahi S, Nemati A, Iranpour F
Objective: To investigate the impact of school nutrition education on children’s dietary habits in Ardabil, Iran. Design: A 12-week intervention with nutrition education was conducted in three primary schools in Ardabil. A total of 600 female students in grades 4 and 5 (10–12 years old) were enrolled in the study and divided into an intervention group and a control group. Dietary data were recorded in a food diary and the amount of different types of food consumed was noted. Data were analysed using independent and paired t-tests, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The children in the intervention group reported significantly (p≤0.05) increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products following education: the mean±SD number of servings of fruit and vegetables after education was 3.2±0.02 and 1.02±0.03, respectively,i n the intervention group. The consumption of chips and sugar-sweetened drinks was significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in intervention group children, while the consumption of oily seeds was significantly (p=0.042) increased. There was a significant difference in the diet diversity score of the intervention group (p=0.032) which had a mean±SD diet diversity score of 5±0.06 groups/day. Nutrition education can affect dietary habits, such as the consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products, and can improve diet diversity in school students.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1038-3
2016

High inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation by Hammada elegans phenolic extracts

Djokhdem K, Djeridane A, Renane N, Yousfi M
The antioxidant activity and phenolic content of extracts and solvent–solvent partition fractions from the aerial parts of three medicinal plants were evaluated. Aerial parts of Hammada elegans, Plantago ciliata and Thymelaea microphylla were extracted using the polarity gradients of different solvents. The samples were extracted by liquid– liquid partition with different organic solvents to obtain 16 fractions. Next, the phenolic contents of all fractions were analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their inhibition of the peroxidation of linoleic acid and sunflower oil was evaluated by the lipid peroxide ammonium thiocyanate method. The total phenolic content of the different Hammada elegans fractions varied from 0.045 to 0.0714 mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The percentage inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid and sunflower oil was found to be higher in methanolic fractions and was comparable to that of α-tocopherol, Trolox, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). In this study, a direct relationship between total phenolic content and inhibition of lipid peroxidation was observed. This indicates that phenolics are the main contributors to the observed antioxidant activities of the different plant extracts. These results indicate that the level of antioxidant activity in these plants varies greatly. They also suggest that the phenolics in these plants provide a substantial amount of antioxidants. Additional research may reveal further benefits of these medicinal plants. The flora of Algeria appears to be a rich and interesting source of plants for ethnomedicinal and phytochemical studies.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1036-3
2016

Optimization of co-fermentation of carrot and tomato juices by probiotic bacteria and yeast using a central composite design

Sivudu S N, Ramesh B, Kumar B V, Reddy O V S
In the present study, experiments were conducted on the suitability of tomato, carrot and mixed tomato+carrot juice for probiotication by Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei and Lysinibacillus sphaericus individually and in combination with a yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii). The combination of Lys. sphaericus and S. boulardii showed good results. Further optimization was carried out using a central composite design (CCD). The autoclaved juices were inoculated with probiotic cultures both alone or in combination with the yeast culture and incubated at 37°C for 72 h. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH levels had decreased from 6.1 to 4.0. Titratable acidity also increased from 0.12% to 0.36%, while the viable cell counts of probiotic bacteria and yeast gradually increased from 6.5 to 7.0 CFU/ml and from 5.4 to 7.9 CFU/ml, respectively. Subsequently, following further fermentation, viable cell counts decreased due to a decrease in pH and an increase in acidity as well as a lack of nutrients in the medium. The antimicrobial activity of mixed juice was found to have a maximum zone of inhibition of 11.8 mm and 9.8 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2394, respectively. Probioticated tomato and carrot juices showed good sensory attributes.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1014-3
2016

The role of lutein in brain health and function

Maci S, Fonseca B, Zhu Y
Lutein selectively accumulates in the macula lutea and is a key component of the macular pigment. Recent research has indicated that lutein is also the predominant carotenoid in both the adult and the infant brain, and studies conducted in primates and humans have shown that lutein concentration in the retina is related to its concentrations in specific regions of the brain. A carotenoid-rich diet and high plasma levels of lutein are positively associated with cognitive status or function in healthy subjects, those with mild cognitive impairment, and subjects with Alzheimer’s disease. Current research indicates that macular pigment optical density, a measure of dietary lutein (and zeaxanthin) deposited in the macula lutea, is positively associated with cognitive function. Additionally, interventional studies provide support that supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin may enhance cognitive function and help maintain cognitive health. The beneficial effect of lutein is most likely linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its ability to integrate into cellular membranes, thereby influencing the structural properties and/or stability of those membranes, and possibly enhance gap junction communications. The aim of this review is to present the scientific evidence available to date.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1037-3
2016

Dynamic role of natural antioxidant sources on different parameters of bread quality: a review

Pathak D, Majumdar J, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R
Improved understanding of the relationship between the consumption of antioxidant-rich food and human health has resulted in the supplementation of food products with natural antioxidants. Enrichment of a staple food such as bread with natural antioxidants can provide additional health benefits. Sources of natural antioxidants include cereals, seeds, spices, herbs, green plants, fruit, vegetables and the less expensive and easily available waste products from the food industry. However, there are technological constraints to the fortification of bread, while sensory and physical properties are important for overall consumer acceptability. Synthetic antioxidants can have serious adverse effects on health, and their substitution with natural antioxidants enhances the therapeutic and functional properties of bread and has the added advantage of increasing shelf-life. This review discusses the antioxidant activity and scavenging properties of various types of breads enriched with natural antioxidants from natural sources and the associated health benefits and sensory attributes of these breads.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1012-3
2016

Bifidobacterium longum ES1: a probiotic with a strong anti-inflammatory phenotype

Genovés S, Ramón D
Bifidobacterium longum ES1 is a probiotic strain with an efficient anti-inflammatory effect which is supported by strong scientific evidence. This strain has been commercialized in several countries as an ingredient for functional foods or nutritional supplements. This article describes the scientific background supporting the phenotype of this probiotic strain.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-3
2016

A new officially recognized role for nutraceuticals in the management of dyslipidemias for cardiovascular disease prevention and patient rehabilitation

Di Pierro F
Despite the widespread use of nutraceuticals, physicians generally have had a low opinion of these products and have been sceptical about their benefits. However, attitudes are now changing. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) have issued new guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention and patient rehabilitation [1], which for the first time state that some nutraceuticals can be used to obtain cardiovascular benefits: ‘nutraceuticals can be used either as alternatives or in addition to lipid-lowering drugs’. Such a statement would have been unthinkable a few years ago.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1035-2
2016

Nutritional content, phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of yoghurt enriched with baobab pulp (Adansonia digitata)

Chipurura B, Bhebhe M, Muchuweti M
The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional content, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of yoghurt enriched with baobab pulp. Baobab yoghurt had significantly (p<0.05) higher ash, crude fibre, vitamin C, iron, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging activity than the control and commercial yoghurts. The ash, crude fibre, vitamin C and iron content was 3.7±0.01 g/100 g, 0.2±0.02 g/100 g, 18.25±0.02 mg/100 g and 0.33±0.01 mg/100 g, respectively. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging activity of the baobab yoghurt was 22.6±2.08 mg GAE/100 g, 4.23±0.25 mg CE/100 g and 19.03%, respectively. The following phenolic acids were detected in the baobab yoghurt: syringic, caffeic, p-dihydroxybenzoic, gallic, protocatechuic and chlorogenic acids. The present study showed that baobab yoghurt is a valuable source of nutrients and phenolic compounds compared to some commercial yoghurts.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1032-2
2016

Comparative evaluation of irradiated and non-irradiated expeller-pressed virgin coconut oil for the design of novel functional antioxidant-rich non-carbonated ready-to-serve and dry beverages

Ghosh P K, Bhattacharjee P
Expeller-pressed virgin coconut oil was subjected to 0–10 kGy gamma irradiation for removal of its rancid-acid odour as judged by sensory evaluation and electronic nose systems. The optimized dose for the removal of the rancid-acid odour was 4.2 kGy. The oil was then blended with green tea extract (3:1 w/w) to produce a novel antioxidant-rich non-carbonated ready-to-serve (RTS) still beverage, which was evaluated against a control beverage prepared with non-irradiated oil. The beverages were stored at 4°C and 23°C and periodically assayed for microbial growth, sensory attributes and physiochemical and phytochemical properties. The beverage containing irradiated coconut oil had a shelf life of 13 days at 4°C. Microencapsulation of this RTS beverage produced a ‘dry beverage’ with appreciable phytochemical properties and a 29-times longer half-life compared to the RTS beverage. The reconstitution ratio of this beverage in water was 1:5 w/w. This is the first report of an oil-based beverage and describes a unique application for expeller-pressed virgin coconut oil. The antioxidant-rich RTS and dry beverages designed in this study could be promising novel health drinks for the beverage industry.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1030-2
2016

Process optimization for the preparation of apple tea wine with analysis of its sensory and physico-chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens

Kumar V, Joshi V K, Vyas G, Thakur N S, Sharma N
Method for preparing apple tea wine using different types of tea at different concentrations were optimized and the physico-chemical, antimicrobial and sensory characteristics of the wine analysed. All characteristics were found to be directly proportional to the concentration of tea fermented naturally or with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus. In both types of fermentation, CTC (crush, tear and curl) tea-based apple tea wine received significantly higher quality scores (p≤0.05). Better results in terms of ethanol, higher alcohol concentrations and antimicrobial activity were found with 4 g tea/100 ml apple juice than with other concentrations, particularly 5 g tea/100 ml apple juice. All apple tea wines showed antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone >7 mm) against Escherichia coli (IGMC), Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 2729), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 839), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA 252) and Bacillus cereus (CRI).
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1028-2
2016

In vitro studies on the modulatory effects of nutraceuticals and gene polymorphisms on organophosphate pesticide-induced genotoxicity as analyzed by the comet assay

Kumar N, Yadav A, Gulati S, Kanupriya D, Aggarwal N, Gupta R
Malathion and parathion are organophosphate pesticides known for their high toxicity to insects and low to moderate toxicity to humans and other mammals. We studied the antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol to combat malathion and parathion-induced DNA damage. Tail moment (TM) as measured by the comet assay was used as a biomarker of genotoxicity. To determine the antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol, heparinized fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with malathion (30 µg/ml) and parathion (2.5 µg/ml) in the presence of curcumin and carvacrol. Curcumin at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/ml significantly reduced (p<0.05) TM compared to samples exposed to malathion only. Curcumin at concentrations of 10 and 15 µg/ml also exerted an antigenotoxic effect on parathion- 1Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1136119, Haryana, India 2Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1136119, Haryana, India 3Department of Biochemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 1136119, Haryana, India Dr. Anita Yadav (Associate Professor), Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India phone: +919416291480 fax: +91-1744-238277 exposed samples. Similarly, carvacrol at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 µg/ml showed a significant (p<0.05) protective effect against both pesticides. We observed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in TM when samples were treated with malathion and parathion in the presence of curcumin and carvacrol. We also studied the effect of polymorphisms of the genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 on the genotoxicity induced by both pesticides. However, we did not observe any significant association (p>0.05) of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with malathion and parathion genotoxicity.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1033-2
2016

The impact of a nutraceutical on insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective observational study

Carrara M, Desideri S, Di Piramo D, Ferri B, Lomonaco L
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic disorder, but, unlike alcoholic liver disease, occurs in individuals with moderate or no alcohol consumption. Insulin resistance is considered to be one of the driving forces of NAFLD, and is found both in obese and in normal-weight subjects. However, current therapy strategies, such as administration of vitamin E or insulin sensitizers, can have variable clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nutraceutical based on berberine, tocotrienols and chlorogenic acid, in combination with diet and moderate aerobic physical activity, on biochemical parameters in NAFLD patients. A total of 19 patients with ultrasound- diagnosed NAFLD, elevated aminotransferase levels, body mass index >25 kg/m2 and <30 kg/m2, and/or altered lipid and/or glucose levels were enrolled in this study. Those who only followed lifestyle advice (n=10) were compared with those who had also taken the nutraceutical (n=9). We observed a marked improvement in most parameters in both groups. However, reductions in UOSD Gastroenterologia ASL 22 Regione Veneto, Via Ospedale 4/6, 37012 Bussolengo (Verona), Italy Maurizio Carrara, MD phone: 00390456712603 fax: 00390456712604 plasma glucose, insulin and HOmeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly greater in the nutraceutical group. Consequently, the use of the nutraceutical combination might reduce insulin resistance, which is likely the first cause of NAFLD.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1042-2
2016

From hypertension to hyperlipidaemia: the nutraceutical properties of egg proteins

Sirtori C R
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death worldwide, and is characterized by the thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial wall as well as compromised blood flow. Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis include elevated blood pressure, high levels of LDL-cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, age, cigarette smoking and family history. While some of these risk factors cannot be modified, food components, such as fats, proteins, peptides, fibre and polyphenols, are likely to be important in the prevention of CVD. Recently extensive studies have evaluated the nutraceutical properties of eggs, particularly egg peptides (cholesterol in eggs is no longer considered a risk factor in the development of CVD). Egg contains antihypertensive peptides, in particular ovokinin, antidiabetic peptides as well as anti-obesity peptides and proteins. In addition, egg components may reduce cholesterol absorption from the intestine, and some egg proteins can possibly raise LDL-receptor activity in different tissues. The consumption of egg whites may decrease cholesterol levels in humans similar to the effect of soybean pro- Director, Centro Dislipidemie, A.O. Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milan, Italy tel 0039 02 50318303 teins. Well-defined egg components could thus act as nutraceuticals and could be used as functional food ingredients to prevent cardiovascular disease.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-2
2016

Probiotics to prevent tooth decay

Di Pierro F
Dental decay is a chronic degenerative infection with a multifactorial aetiology. Oral health education begins in the prenatal period with advice from the gynaecologist and the dentist. Use of fluorine, which can be administered in a variety of ways, is one of the main methods to prevent tooth decay. However, although it has proven protective effects, its administration is not always optimal, likely due to poor scientific knowledge and fear of dental fluorosis. Can the nutraceutical sciences can offer something different? Or something more? Overgrowth and disequilibrium of pathogenic microorganism species in the oral cavity can manifest as a variety of different oral diseases, including dental caries. Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 is a bacterial strain with clinically significant probiotic applications for curtailing this pathogenic bacterial growth.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1021-1
2016

Increasing anthocyanin content in black carrot juice by an enzyme assisted process: Optimization using response surface methodology

Kaur C, Rudraa S G, Sahac S, Vargheseb E, Nagala S
A three-level, three-factor, Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize enzyme- assisted processing (EAP), for enhancing the concentration of anthocyanins extracted (ACNs) from black carrots. The black carrot mash was subjected to pre-treatments with different concentrations of Viscozyme L (0.05–0.25% v/w), extraction temperatures (50–70ºC) and incubation time (30–90 min). Overall, a two-fold increase in ACN recovery was observed compared to untreated mash. Response surface analysis of the data,- was used to develop a three-degree polynomial equation which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: enzyme concentration = 0.23% v/w, temperature = 60°C and extraction time = 78 min. Under the optimal conditions, black carrot juice extracted via EAP had a high juice yield (86.31%) and high total monomeric ACNs (1252.15 mg/l). Results demonstrate that Viscozyme L is a potential enzyme combination for enhancing juice yields and ACN content from black carrots.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1019-1
2016

Product characterization and antioxidant potential of rice-based jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) powder-supplemented extruded snacks

Kapoor S, Singh Ranote P, Singh B, Sharma S
Antioxidant enriched snacks prepared by supplementing rice flour with jamun powder were assessed for product quality and antioxidant activity. Rice flour was supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % hot air and freeze dried jamun powder for the preparation of the snacks. The quality parameters of extrudates, that is, the expansion ratio and water absorption index, decreased with increasing jamun powder supplementation levels, whereas bulk density (g/cm3), hardness and water solubility increased. Sensory scores were found to be highest for 10% jamun powder (hot air and freeze dried) supplemented snacks which were chosen for further studies. Antioxidant activity improved significantly upon incorporation of jamun powder into rice snacks. Anthocyanins were not detected in control samples, while freeze dried jamun powder-supplemented snacks had 9.52% higher anthocyanins than hot air dried jamun powdersupplemented snacks. Total phenols increased by 89.72% and 80.42% in supplemented snacks containing freeze dried and hot air dried jamun powder, respectively, at a 10% supplementation level. Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India tel. +918054557723 The study was undertaken to determine the antioxidant potential of jamun powder in extruded snacks and to study the functional properties of the developed product.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1015-1
2016

Studies on the Physicochemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Ash Gourd-Carrot Juice

Kadam D, Lele S
The formulation and storage stability of ash gourdcarrot juice was investigated. Cloud stability is an important criterion for ash gourd-carrot juice and was achieved with the addition of 0.35% pectin. The effects of heat treatment, physicochemical properties, microbiological count and nutrient loss of β-carotene and total polyphenols were determined. The processing temperature was optimised at 95°C for 10 min before the juice was bottled. Nutrient content and physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of storage at 4°C and 28°C, respectively. The pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, reducing sugar content and sensory score did not alter significantly during storage at either temperature. However, cloud stability decreased by 20% and 32%, while juice lightness increased by 23% and 31% at 4°C and 28°C, respectively. Nutrient content decreased significantly during storage. The results indicated that the quality of juice stored for up to 8 weeks at both 4°C and 28°C was acceptable. Therefore, ready-to-drink ash gourd-carrot blended juice is nutritious, healthful and can be considered for commercialization.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1011-1
2016

Changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of turmeric as affected by cooking time

Adefegha S A, Oboh G, Olasehinde T A, Osunmo K
This study sought to assess the effects of cooking time on the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of turmeric extracts. Steam cooked turmeric extracts were prepared by cooking 10 g of turmeric for 10 (SCT10) and 20 (SCT20) min, respectively, while the raw sample (RWT) was prepared by soaking 10 g of turmeric in 200 ml of distilled water for 1 h. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the turmeric extracts were determined and phenolic composition was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The ferric reducing antioxidant property, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH)] scavenging abilities and interaction of the extracts with α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were also investigated. SCT20 (4.26 mg/g and 3.96 mg/g) had significantly higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than SCT10 (3.58 mg GAE/g and 3.38 mg QE/g) and RWT (2.44 mg/g and 2.38 mg/g), respectively. 1Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Unit, Department of Biochemistry, School of Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, PMB 704, Akure 340001, Ondo State, Nigeria 2Nutrition and Toxicology Division, Food Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, PMB 21023, Lagos 10001, Nigeria SCT20 (76.8 mmol/100 g) had the highest reducing property, while RWT (68.2 mmol AAE/100 g) had the lowest. Furthermore, SCT20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher DPPH, NO and OH radical scavenging ability than SCT10 and RWT. The extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. While RWT had the lowest inhibitory effects, SCT20 had the highest. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin and circumin. The phenolic constituents of the steam cooked extracts were significantly higher than those of the raw samples except for caffeic acid which decreased with increased cooking time. Therefore, steam cooking increased the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties as well as the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of turmeric.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1004-1
2016

In vitro oxidative burst assay to evaluate the efficacy of Immune-G-matrix™, an innovative yeast-b-glucans, zinc and copper-based formulation

Buonocore D, Seneci A, Carrabetta M E, Pialorsi F, Zurlo M, Bottone M G, Veneroni P, Verri M, Dossena M
Oxygen is necessary for the survival of aerobic organisms, while at the same time it is able to acquire electrons generating toxic molecules called reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g. superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide). ROS can generate reactive oxygen metabolites, causing oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. On the other hand, in the higher organisms the immune system uses ROS against pathogens. Infections or other stimuli can induce cell activation (e.g. neutrophil cells) and functional responses, such as the oxidative or respiratory burst and later ROS release. Subjects with deficits in intracellular defence mechanisms have an increased susceptibility to infections by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of an innovative yeast-β-glucans, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) formulation, Immuno-GMatrix ™, based on G-MatrixLipid™ technology, to induce oxidative burst in neutrophil cells in comparison with an activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Oxidative burst evaluation was based on the capacity of released ROS to change the fluorescent properties of a substrate, dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR). We measured the intensity of 1 Department of Biology and Biotechnology, “L. Spallanzani” University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy 2 Truffini & Reggè Farmaceutici Srl, Milan, Italy fluorescence compared with a negative control sample (differentiated cells) and a positive control sample (cells incubated with PMA). The results showed that Immuno-G-Matrix™ was able to induce functional responses, such as the neutrophil oxidative burst, as is the activating agent PMA.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-1040-1
2016

Developing a bacteriotherapy-based approach to control streptococcal infections

Tagg J R
The author provides an account of the background to his discovery of bacteriocin production by streptococcal bacteria and the subsequent demonstration over five decades of research that the streptococcal bacteriocin-like activities are distinctive both for the abundance of their production and for the chemical heterogeneity of their structures. The initial impetus for this research was an endeavour to identify candidate bacteriocin-producing, non-disease-associated streptococci for potential development as oral probiotics capable of providing protection to young children against Streptococcus pyogenes infections. The practical outcome of these studies has been the development and commercial distribution of the bacteriocin-producing probiotic strains Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) and S. salivarius M18 (BLIS M18) for application to the control of a wide variety of bacterial infections and disequilibria of the oral microbiota, currently ranging from streptococcal pharyngitis and otitis media to tooth decay and halitosis.
8 Aprile 2016
DOI: 10.17470/NF-016-0001-1
2016

Bacterial therapy in pregnancy to drive the intra-partum colonization of newborns

Di Pierro F
Recently, a very interesting paper has been published on Nature Medicine. The Authors have clearly shown the relevancy of a close contact between mother and newborn to effect appropriate passage of microbes to her infant [1]. They have demonstrated that it is possible to get partial restoration of the microbiota of cesarean-born infants by exposing them to maternal vaginal fluids. Vaginal microbe transfer to cesarean-born infants makes them “microbially” similar to vaginally delivered infants. Epidemiological studies have clearly shown an association between cesarean-section delivery and increased risk of obesity, asthma, allergies and immune deficiencies [2-5]. The authors’ attempts to establish an appropriate microbiota in cesarean-born infants by exposing them to the mothers’ vaginal fluids demonstrates the importance of mother-infant microbe transfer and highlights, as a next step, the importance of specifically- directed “manipulation” of the pre-term maternal microbiota in order to further optimize and enrich this transfer process.